Insulin resistance and cardiovascular disease

Brent M. Egan, Eddie L. Greene, Theodore L. Goodfriend

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

88 Scopus citations

Abstract

Cardiovascular risk factors cluster in obese individuals. Insulin resistance emerges as a common pathogenetic denominator underlying the risk factor cluster. Defects in nonesterified fatty acids metabolism have been implicated in the abnormal lipid and glucose metabolism which characterize the cluster. Other evidence also leads to the adipocyte as an important contributor to the risk factor cluster and cardiovascular complications through effects not only on fatty acids but also on leptin, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, and angiotensinogen, to name a few. Fatty acids are elevated among abdominally obese individuals, are more resistant to suppression by insulin, and may contribute to hypertension. Fatty acids may affect blood pressure by inhibiting endothelial nitric oxide synthase activity and impairing endothelium-dependent vasodilation. Fatty acids increase α1-adrenoceptor-mediated vascular reactivity and enhance the proliferation and migration of cultured vascular smooth-muscle cells. Several effects of fatty acids are mediated through oxidative stress. Fatty acids can also interact with other facets of cluster, including increased angiotensin II, to accentuate oxidative stress. Oxidative stress, in turn, is implicated in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance, hypertension, vascular remodeling, and vascular complications. A clearer delineation of the key reactive oxygen signaling pathways and the impact of various interventions on these pathways could facilitate a rationale approach to antioxidant therapy and improved outcomes among the rapidly growing number of high-risk, insulin-resistant, obese individuals.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)116S-125S
JournalAmerican journal of hypertension
Volume14
Issue number6 II
DOIs
StatePublished - 2001

Keywords

  • Angiotensin
  • Blood pressure
  • Fatty acids
  • Insulin resistance
  • Oxidative
  • Risk factor cluster

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Internal Medicine

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