Injectable Electrical Conductive and Phosphate Releasing Gel with Two-Dimensional Black Phosphorus and Carbon Nanotubes for Bone Tissue Engineering

Xifeng Liu, Matthew N. George, Linli Li, Darian Gamble, A. Lee Miller, Bipin Gaihre, Brian E. Waletzki, Lichun Lu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations

Abstract

Injectable hydrogels have unique advantages for the repair of irregular tissue defects. In this study, we report a novel injectable carbon nanotube (CNT) and black phosphorus (BP) gel with enhanced mechanical strength, electrical conductivity, and continuous phosphate ion release for tissue engineering. The gel utilized biodegradable oligo(poly(ethylene glycol) fumarate) (OPF) polymer as the cross-linking matrix, with the addition of cross-linkable CNT-poly(ethylene glycol)-acrylate (CNTpega) to grant mechanical support and electric conductivity. Two-dimensional (2D) black phosphorus nanosheets were also infused to aid in tissue regeneration through the steady release of phosphate that results from environmental oxidation of phosphorus in situ. This newly developed BP-CNTpega-gel was found to enhance the adhesion, proliferation, and osteogenic differentiation of MC3T3 preosteoblast cells. With electric stimulation, the osteogenesis of preosteoblast cells was further enhanced with elevated expression of several key osteogenic pathway genes. As monitored with X-ray imaging, the BP-CNTpega-gel demonstrated excellent in situ gelation and cross-linking to fill femur defects, vertebral body cavities, and posterolateral spinal fusion sites in the rabbit. Together, these results indicate that this newly developed injectable BP-CNTpega-gel owns promising potential for future bone and broad types of tissue engineering applications.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)4653-4665
Number of pages13
JournalACS Biomaterials Science and Engineering
Volume6
Issue number8
DOIs
StatePublished - Aug 10 2020

Keywords

  • 2D materials
  • black phosphorus
  • carbon nanotubes
  • injectable hydrogel
  • tissue engineering

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biomaterials
  • Biomedical Engineering

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