Influence of race, income, insurance, and education on the rate of breast reconstruction

David J. Restrepo, Daniel Boczar, Maria T. Huayllani, Andrea Sisti, Emmanuel Gabriel, Sarah A McLaughlin, Sanjay P Bagaria, Aaron C. Spaulding, Brian D. Rinker, Antonio Jorge Forte

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

2 Scopus citations


Background/Aim: The aim of this study was to analyze how race, income, insurance, and education, affect breast reconstruction rates. Materials and Methods: We reviewed the National Cancer Database. χ2 test and binary logistic regression were used to analyze the association between demographic characteristics and reconstruction rate. Results: White race and private insurance were associated with a higher risk of getting reconstruction when compared to black race (odd ratio [OR]=0.939; 95%CI=0.909-0.970) and government insurance (OR=0.459; 95%CI=0.447-0.471). Patients with an estimated income >$63,000 were found to have higher odds of receiving breast reconstruction than patients with income less than $38,000 (OR=1.868; 95%CI=1.792-1.948). Patients who live in a zip code area with a higher education average have higher odds of receiving postmastectomy breast reconstruction than patients living in a zip code with a lower education average (OR=1.152, 95%CI=1.104-1.203). Conclusion: Differences in reconstruction rates exist based on race, income, insurance, and education level.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2969-2973
Number of pages5
JournalAnticancer Research
Issue number6
StatePublished - Jan 1 2019


  • Breast neoplasms/surgery
  • Female
  • Healthcare disparities/statistics & numerical data
  • Mastectomy
  • Middle aged
  • Retrospective studies

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oncology
  • Cancer Research

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    Restrepo, D. J., Boczar, D., Huayllani, M. T., Sisti, A., Gabriel, E., McLaughlin, S. A., Bagaria, S. P., Spaulding, A. C., Rinker, B. D., & Forte, A. J. (2019). Influence of race, income, insurance, and education on the rate of breast reconstruction. Anticancer Research, 39(6), 2969-2973.