Background. Anesthetic management of orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) can be challenging. Management involves responding to sudden hemodynamic shifts, addressing instability, and performing ongoing volume assessment. To best prepare for these perturbations, various monitors are used intraoperatively. We sought to explore the impact of transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) and pulmonary artery catheter (PAC) use on outcomes of patients undergoing OLT. Methods. We retrospectively reviewed records of patients who underwent OLT at a single institution and included all who were monitored intraoperatively with TEE alone, PAC alone, or both methods concurrently (TEE + PAC). We determined whether these groups had differences in length of hospitalization (primary outcome), 30-day mortality rate, and other outcomes. Results. Three hundred eighteen liver transplant operations were included in the study. Patients in the TEE + PAC group had the shortest median length of hospitalization (TEE + PAC, 8.6 days; TEE, 10.3; PAC, 9.1; P = 0.04). The TEE + PAC group also had the lowest 30-day mortality rate (TEE + PAC, n = 1 [1.3%]; TEE, n = 5 [12.8%]; PAC, n = 7 [3.5%]; P = 0.009). However, the TEE + PAC group also had the highest rate of a new postoperative need for dialysis (TEE + PAC, n = 8 [10.3%]; TEE, n = 2 [5.1%]; PAC, n = 1 [0.5%]; P < 0.001). Conclusions. Compared with either TEE alone or PAC alone, intraoperative monitoring with TEE + PAC during OLT was associated with the shortest length of hospitalization and lowest 30-day mortality rate. Transplant anesthesiologists should be aware of the potential benefit on patient mortality and hospital length of stay with concurrent intraoperative TEE + PAC monitoring and the increased need for new postoperative dialysis.
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