Background-Although older patients frequently undergo percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI), frailty, comorbidity, and quality of life are seldom part of risk prediction approaches. We assessed their incremental prognostic value over and above the risk factors in the Mayo Clinic risk score. Methods and Results-Patients ≥ 65 years who underwent PCI were assessed for frailty (Fried criteria), comorbidity (Charlson index), and quality of life [SF-36]. Of the 628 discharged [median follow-up of 35.0 months (interquartile range, 22.7 to 42.9)], 78 died and 72 had a myocardial infarction (MI) . Three-year mortality was 28% for frail patients, 6% for nonfrail patients. The respective 3-year rates of death or MI were 41% and 17%. After adjustment, frailty [hazard ratio (HR), 4.19 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.85, 9.51], physical component score of the SF-36 (HR, 1.59; 95% CI, 1.24 to 2.02), and comorbidity, (HR, 1.10; 95% CI, 1.05, 1.16) were associated with mortality. Frailty was associated with mortality/MI (HR, 2.61, 1.52, 4.50). Models with conventional Mayo Clinic risk score had C-statistics of 0.628, 0.573 for mortality and mortality/MI, respectively. Adding frailty, quality of life, and comorbidity, the C-statistic was (0.675, 0.694, 0.671) for mortality and (0.607, 0.587, 0.576) for mortality/MI, respectively. Including frailty, comorbidities and SF-36, conferred a discernible improvement to predict death and death/MI (integrated discrimination improvement, 0.027 and 0.016, and net reclassification improvement of 43% and 18%, respectively). Conclusions-After PCI, frailty, comorbidity and poor quality of life are prevalent and are associated with adverse long-term outcomes. Their inclusion improves the discriminatory ability of the Mayo Clinic risk score derived from the routine cardiovascular risk factors.
- Coronary disease
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine