High-grade B-cell lymphomas with MYC and BCL2 and/or BCL6 rearrangements (double-/triple-hit lymphoma) have an aggressive clinical course. We investigated the prognostic value of transformation from low-grade lymphoma, cytological features (high grade versus large cell), MYC rearrangement partners (immunoglobulin versus nonimmunoglobulin gene), and treatment. We evaluated 100 adults with double-/triple-hit lymphoma, reviewing cytological features; cell of origin; and rearrangements of MYC, BCL2, and BCL6 using MYC, BCL2, and BCL6 break-apart and IGH/MYC, IGL/MYC, IGK/MYC, and IGH/BCL2 dual-fusion interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization probes. Outcome analysis was restricted to patients with lymphoma, de novo or at transformation, who received anthracycline-based chemotherapy. Among them, 60% had high-grade cytological features; 91% had a germinal center B-cell phenotype, and 60% had a MYC/IG rearrangement. Germinal center B-cell phenotype was associated with BCL2 rearrangements (P<0.001). Mean (95% confidence interval) 5-year overall survival was 49% (37%-64%). Transformation from previously treated and untreated low-grade lymphoma was associated with inferior overall survival (hazard ratio, 2.99; P=0.008). Patients with high-grade cytological features showed a non-significant tendency to inferior outcome (hazard ratio, 2.32; P=0.09). No association was observed between MYC rearrangement partner and overall survival (hazard ratio, 1.00; P=0.99). Compared with patients receiving rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, and vincristine (R-CHOP) and dose-adjusted etoposide, prednisone, vincristine, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, and rituximab (EPOCH-R), patients receiving rituximab, cyclophosphamide, vincristine, doxorubicin, methotrexate/ifosfamide, etoposide, and cytarabine (R-CODOX-M/IVAC) had a non-significant tendency to better overall survival (hazard ratio, 0.37; P=0.10). In conclusion, high-grade B-cell lymphomas with MYC and BCL2 and/or BCL6 rearrangements had heterogeneous outcomes and MYC/IG rearrangements were not associated with inferior overall survival.
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