Individualized management of cytomegalovirus in solid organ transplant recipients

Huma Saeed, Matthew Thoendel, Raymund R. Razonable

Abstract

Introduction: Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is an opportunistic infection that affects immunocompromised solid organ transplant patients. Defining the imbalance between host and virus factors that predispose to its occurrence can assist in individualizing the approach to CMV prevention and treatment. Areas covered: In this narrative review article, we provide an up to date overview of host, pathogen, and transplant-related factors that determine the risk and outcome of CMV infection in solid organ transplant recipients. We review the role of CMV-specific cell-mediated and humoral immune status, degree of lymphopenia, degree of viremia, and the dose and type of immunosuppressive regimen in defining the risk and determining the outcome of CMV. We propose that knowledge of these factors should be taken into account in optimizing the management strategies and individualize our approach to CMV prevention and treatment in the posttransplant setting. Expert opinion: The management of CMV in transplant recipients is not a one-size-fits-all strategy. We highlight the spectrum of CMV risk and outcomes in solid organ transplant recipients based on host, virus, and transplant-related factors. We provide examples on how to incorporate these factors in the implementation of optimized antiviral prophylaxis, preemptive treatment of asymptomatic infection and management of susceptible, refractory, and resistant CMV disease.

Keywords

  • cidofovir
  • CMV infection
  • CMV serostatus mismatch
  • CMV-specific T-cell immunity
  • Cytomegalovirus
  • ganciclovir
  • letermovir
  • lymphopenia
  • maribavir

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Molecular Medicine
  • Genetics
  • Pharmacology
  • Drug Discovery

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