Index60 Is Superior to HbA1c for Identifying Individuals at High Risk for Type 1 Diabetes

Laura M. Jacobsen, Brian N. Bundy, Heba M. Ismail, Mark Clements, Megan Warnock, Susan Geyer, Desmond A. Schatz, Jay M. Sosenko

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


CONTEXT: HbA1c from ≥ 5.7% to < 6.5% (39-46 mmol/mol) indicates prediabetes according to American Diabetes Association guidelines, yet its identification of prediabetes specific for type 1 diabetes has not been assessed. A composite glucose and C-peptide measure, Index60, identifies individuals at high risk for type 1 diabetes. OBJECTIVE: We compared Index60 and HbA1c thresholds as markers for type 1 diabetes risk. METHODS: TrialNet Pathway to Prevention study participants with ≥ 2 autoantibodies (GADA, IAA, IA-2A, or ZnT8A) who had oral glucose tolerance tests and HbA1c measurements underwent 1) predictive time-dependent modeling of type 1 diabetes risk (n = 2776); and 2) baseline comparisons between high-risk mutually exclusive groups: Index60 ≥ 2.04 (n = 268) vs HbA1c ≥ 5.7% (n = 268). The Index60 ≥ 2.04 threshold was commensurate in ordinal ranking with the standard prediabetes threshold of HbA1c ≥ 5.7%. RESULTS: In mutually exclusive groups, individuals exceeding Index60 ≥ 2.04 had a higher cumulative incidence of type 1 diabetes than those exceeding HbA1c ≥ 5.7% (P < 0.0001). Appreciably more individuals with Index60 ≥ 2.04 were at stage 2, and among those at stage 2, the cumulative incidence was higher for those with Index60 ≥ 2.04 (P = 0.02). Those with Index60 ≥ 2.04 were younger, with lower BMI, greater autoantibody number, and lower C-peptide than those with HbA1c ≥ 5.7% (P < 0.0001 for all comparisons). CONCLUSION: Individuals with Index60 ≥ 2.04 are at greater risk for type 1 diabetes with features more characteristic of the disorder than those with HbA1c ≥ 5.7%. Index60 ≥ 2.04 is superior to the standard HbA1c ≥ 5.7% threshold for identifying prediabetes in autoantibody-positive individuals. These findings appear to justify using Index60 ≥ 2.04 as a prediabetes criterion in this population.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2784-2792
Number of pages9
JournalThe Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
Issue number10
StatePublished - Sep 28 2022


  • HbA1c
  • Index60
  • metabolic
  • prevention
  • type 1 diabetes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
  • Biochemistry
  • Endocrinology
  • Clinical Biochemistry
  • Biochemistry, medical


Dive into the research topics of 'Index60 Is Superior to HbA1c for Identifying Individuals at High Risk for Type 1 Diabetes'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this