Increased X-ray visualization of shape memory polymer foams by chemical incorporation of iodine motifs

Landon D. Nash, Mary Beth Browning Monroe, Yong Hong Ding, Kendal P. Ezell, Anthony J. Boyle, Ramanathan D Kadirvel, David F Kallmes, Duncan J. Maitland

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

3 Scopus citations


Shape memory polymers can be programmed into a secondary geometry and recovered to their primary geometry with the application of a controlled stimulus. Porous shape memory polymer foam scaffolds that respond to body temperature show particular promise for embolic medical applications. A limitation for the minimally invasive delivery of these materials is an inherent lack of X-ray contrast. In this work, a triiodobenzene containing a monomer was incorporated into a shape memory polymer foam material system to chemically impart X-ray visibility and increase material toughness. Composition and process changes enabled further control over material density and thermomechanical properties. The proposed material system demonstrates a wide range of tailorable functional properties for the design of embolic medical devices, including X-ray visibility, expansion rate, and porosity. Enhanced visualization of these materials can improve the acute performance of medical devices used to treat vascular malformations, and the material porosity provides a healing scaffold for durable occlusion.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number381
Issue number8
StatePublished - Aug 20 2017



  • Medical device
  • Polymer foam
  • Shape memory polymer

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Chemistry(all)
  • Polymers and Plastics

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