Increased use of hypnotics in individuals with celiac disease: A nationwide case-control study

Karl Mårild, Timothy I. Morgenthaler, Virend K. Somers, Suresh Kotagal, Joseph A. Murray, Jonas F. Ludvigsson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

10 Scopus citations


Background: Although poor sleep is common in numerous gastrointestinal diseases, data are scarce on the risk of poor sleep in celiac disease. The objective of this study was to estimate the risk of repeated use of hypnotics among individuals with celiac disease as a proxy measure for poor sleep. Methods: This is a nationwide case-control study including 2933 individuals with celiac disease and 14,571 matched controls from the general Swedish population. Poor sleep was defined as ≥2 prescriptions of hypnotics using prospective data from the National Prescribed Drug Register (data capture: July 2005-January 2008). We estimated odds ratios and hazard ratios for poor sleep before and after celiac disease diagnosis respectively. Results: In this study, poor sleep was seen in 129/2933 individuals (4.4%) with celiac disease, as compared with 487/14,571 controls (3.3%) (odds ratio = 1.33; 95% CI = 1.08-1.62). Data restricted to sleep complaints starting ≥1 year before celiac disease diagnosis revealed largely unchanged risk estimates (odds ratio = 1.23; 95% CI = 0.88-1.71) as compared with the overall risk (odds ratio 1.33). The risk of poor sleep in celiac disease was essentially not influenced by adjustment for concomitant psychiatric comorbidity (n = 1744, adjusted odds ratio =1.26; 95% CI = 1.02-1.54) or restless legs syndrome (n = 108, adjusted odds ratio = 1.33; 95% CI = 1.08-1.63). Poor sleep was also more common after celiac disease diagnosis as compared with matched controls (hazard ratio = 1.36; 95% CI = 1.30-1.41). Conclusions: In conclusion, individuals with celiac disease suffer an increased risk of poor sleep, both before and after diagnosis. Although we cannot rule out that surveillance bias has contributed to our findings, our results are consistent with previous data suggesting that sleep complaints may be a manifestation of celiac disease.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number10
JournalBMC Gastroenterology
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 20 2015


  • Coeliac
  • Immune-mediated
  • Insomnia
  • Sleep disorders
  • Small intestine

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Gastroenterology


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