Incidence, Trends, and Outcomes of Type 2 Myocardial Infarction in a Community Cohort

Claire E. Raphael, Véronique L. Roger, Yader Sandoval, Mandeep Singh, Malcolm Bell, Amir Lerman, Charanjit S. Rihal, Bernard J. Gersh, Bradley Lewis, Ryan J. Lennon, Allan S. Jaffe, Rajiv Gulati

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

16 Scopus citations


Background: Type 2 myocardial infarction (T2MI) occurs because of an acute imbalance in myocardial oxygen supply and demand in the absence of atherothrombosis. Despite being frequently encountered in clinical practice, the population-based incidence and trends remain unknown, and the long-term outcomes are incompletely characterized. Methods: We prospectively recruited residents of Olmsted County, Minnesota, who experienced an event associated with a cardiac troponin T >99th percentile of a normal reference population (≥0.01 ng/mL) between January 1, 2003, and December 31, 2012. Events were retrospectively classified into type 1 myocardial infarction (T1MI, atherothombotic event), T2MI, or myocardial injury (troponin rise not meeting criteria for myocardial infarction [MI]) using the universal definition. Outcomes were long-term all-cause and cardiovascular mortality and recurrent MI. T2MI was further subclassified by the inciting event for supply/demand mismatch. Results: A total of 5460 patients had at least one cardiac troponin T ≥0.01 ng/mL; 1365 of these patients were classified as index T1MI (age, 68.5±14.8 years; 63% male) and 1054 were classified as T2MI (age, 73.7±15.8 years; 46% male). The annual incidence of T1MI decreased markedly from 202 to 84 per 100 000 persons between 2003 and 2012 (P<0.001), whereas the incidence of T2MI declined from 130 to 78 per 100 000 persons (P=0.02). In comparison with patients with T1MI, patients with T2MI had higher long-term all-cause mortality after adjustment for age and sex, driven by early and noncardiovascular death. Rates of cardiovascular death were similar after either type of MI (hazard ratio, 0.8 [95% CI, 0.7-1.0], P=0.11). Subclassification of T2MI by cause demonstrated a more favorable prognosis when the principal provoking mechanism was arrhythmia, in comparison with postoperative status, hypotension, anemia, and hypoxia. After index T2MI, the most common MI during follow-up was a recurrent T2MI, whereas the occurrence of a new T1MI was relatively rare (estimated rates at 5 years, 9.7% and 1.7%). Conclusions: There has been an evolution in the type of MI occurring in the community over a decade, with the incidence of T2MI now being similar to T1MI. Mortality after T2MI is higher and driven by early and noncardiovascular death. The provoking mechanism of supply/demand mismatch affects long-term survival. These findings underscore the healthcare burden of T2MI and provide benchmarks for clinical trial design.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)454-463
Number of pages10
StatePublished - Feb 11 2020


  • biological oxygen demand analysis
  • epidemiology
  • incidence
  • mortality
  • myocardial infarction
  • myocardial infarction, classification
  • myocardial ischemia
  • prognosis
  • trends

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
  • Physiology (medical)


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