Background: Type 2 myocardial infarction (T2MI) occurs because of an acute imbalance in myocardial oxygen supply and demand in the absence of atherothrombosis. Despite being frequently encountered in clinical practice, the population-based incidence and trends remain unknown, and the long-term outcomes are incompletely characterized. Methods: We prospectively recruited residents of Olmsted County, Minnesota, who experienced an event associated with a cardiac troponin T >99th percentile of a normal reference population (≥0.01 ng/mL) between January 1, 2003, and December 31, 2012. Events were retrospectively classified into type 1 myocardial infarction (T1MI, atherothombotic event), T2MI, or myocardial injury (troponin rise not meeting criteria for myocardial infarction [MI]) using the universal definition. Outcomes were long-term all-cause and cardiovascular mortality and recurrent MI. T2MI was further subclassified by the inciting event for supply/demand mismatch. Results: A total of 5460 patients had at least one cardiac troponin T ≥0.01 ng/mL; 1365 of these patients were classified as index T1MI (age, 68.5±14.8 years; 63% male) and 1054 were classified as T2MI (age, 73.7±15.8 years; 46% male). The annual incidence of T1MI decreased markedly from 202 to 84 per 100 000 persons between 2003 and 2012 (P<0.001), whereas the incidence of T2MI declined from 130 to 78 per 100 000 persons (P=0.02). In comparison with patients with T1MI, patients with T2MI had higher long-term all-cause mortality after adjustment for age and sex, driven by early and noncardiovascular death. Rates of cardiovascular death were similar after either type of MI (hazard ratio, 0.8 [95% CI, 0.7-1.0], P=0.11). Subclassification of T2MI by cause demonstrated a more favorable prognosis when the principal provoking mechanism was arrhythmia, in comparison with postoperative status, hypotension, anemia, and hypoxia. After index T2MI, the most common MI during follow-up was a recurrent T2MI, whereas the occurrence of a new T1MI was relatively rare (estimated rates at 5 years, 9.7% and 1.7%). Conclusions: There has been an evolution in the type of MI occurring in the community over a decade, with the incidence of T2MI now being similar to T1MI. Mortality after T2MI is higher and driven by early and noncardiovascular death. The provoking mechanism of supply/demand mismatch affects long-term survival. These findings underscore the healthcare burden of T2MI and provide benchmarks for clinical trial design.
- biological oxygen demand analysis
- myocardial infarction
- myocardial infarction, classification
- myocardial ischemia
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
- Physiology (medical)