Background: Post-operative acute coronary ischemia is an uncommon complication of coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). However, data on the incidence and outcomes of early coronary ischemia and in-hospital percutaneous coronary interventions (PCIs) after CABG are scarce. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to assess the incidence, predictors, and outcomes of early (in-hospital) PCI following CABG. Methods: This study utilized the National Inpatient Sample to select patients who underwent CABG between January 1, 2003, and December 31, 2014. Patients who had acute coronary ischemia requiring in-hospital PCI after CABG were compared with patients who did not need PCI. The primary endpoint was in-hospital mortality. Secondary endpoints were major complications, length-of-stay, and cost. Predictors of the need for post-CABG PCI were assessed in multivariate regression analyses. Results: Among the 554,987 studied patients, 24,503 (4.4%) had suspected acute coronary ischemia and underwent angiography post-operatively, of whom 14,323 had PCI. The majority (71.4%) of PCIs were performed within 24 h following CABG. Unadjusted in-hospital mortality was higher in patients who underwent PCI (5.1% vs. 2.7%; p < 0.001). The excess mortality persisted after multiple risk adjustments and sensitivity analyses. Patients who underwent post-CABG PCI had higher rates of strokes (2.1% vs. 1.6%; p < 0.001), acute kidney injury (16% vs. 12.3%; p < 0.001), and infectious complications. Post-CABG PCI was also associated with longer hospitalizations and a ∼50% increase in cost. Nonelective admissions and off-pump CABG were the strongest predictors of needing an in-hospital PCI following CABG. Conclusions: In-hospital post-CABG PCI is uncommon but is associated with significantly increased morbidity, mortality, and cost. Further studies are needed to assess modifiable risk factors for early coronary compromise following CABG.
- coronary artery bypass grafting
- graft failure
- percutaneous coronary intervention
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine