Incidence of second ACL injuries 2 years after primary ACL reconstruction and return to sport

Mark V. Paterno, Mitchell J. Rauh, Laura C. Schmitt, Kevin R. Ford, Timothy Hewett

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

209 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: The incidence of second anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries in the first 12 months after ACL reconstruction (ACLR) and return to sport (RTS) in a young, active population has been reported to be 15 times greater than that in a previously uninjured cohort. There are no reported estimates of whether this high relative rate of injury continues beyond the first year after RTS and ACLR. Hypothesis: The incidence rate of a subsequent ACL injury in the 2 years after ACLR and RTS would be less than the incidence rate reported within the first 12 months after RTS but greater than the ACL injury incidence rate in an uninjured cohort of young athletes. Study Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. Methods: Seventy-eight patients (mean age, 17.1 ± 3.1 years) who underwent ACLR and were ready to return to a pivoting/ cutting sport and 47 controls (mean age, 17.2 ± 2.6 years) who also participated in pivoting/cutting sports were prospectively enrolled. Each participant was followed for injury and athlete exposure (AE) data for a 24-month period after RTS. Twenty-three ACLR and 4 control participants suffered an ACL injury during this time. Incidence rate ratios (IRRs) were calculated to compare the rates (per 1000 AEs) of ACL injury in athletes in the ACLR and control groups. For the ACLR group, similar comparisons were conducted for side of injury by sex. Results: The overall incidence rate of a second ACL injury within 24 months after ACLR and RTS (1.39/1000 AEs) was nearly 6 times greater (IRR, 5.71; 95% CI, 2.0-22.7; P = .0003) than that in healthy control participants (0.24/1000 AEs). The rate of injury within 24 months of RTS for female athletes in the ACLR group was almost 5 times greater (IRR, 4.51; 95% CI, 1.5-18.2; P = .0004) than that for female controls. Although only a trend was observed, female patients within the ACLR group were twice as likely (IRR, 2.43; 95% CI, 0.8-8.6) to suffer a contralateral injury (1.13/1000 AEs) than an ipsilateral injury (0.47/1000 AEs). Overall, 29.5% of athletes suffered a second ACL injury within 24 months of RTS, with 20.5% sustaining a contralateral injury and 9.0% incurring a retear injury of the ipsilateral graft. There was a trend toward a higher proportion of female participants (23.7%) who suffered a contralateral injury compared with male participants (10.5%) (P = .18). Conversely, for ipsilateral injuries, the incidence proportion between female (8.5%) and male (10.5%) participants was similar. Conclusion: These data support the hypothesis that in the 24 months after ACLR and RTS, patients are at a greater risk to suffer a subsequent ACL injury compared with young athletes without a history of ACL injuries. In addition, the contralateral limb of female patients appears at greatest risk.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1567-1573
Number of pages7
JournalAmerican Journal of Sports Medicine
Volume42
Issue number7
DOIs
StatePublished - 2014
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction
Athletes
Incidence
Wounds and Injuries
Sports
Return to Sport
Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injuries
Healthy Volunteers
Cohort Studies
Extremities
Transplants
Control Groups

Keywords

  • Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction
  • Incidence rate
  • Second injury
  • Subsequent injury

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine
  • Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation

Cite this

Incidence of second ACL injuries 2 years after primary ACL reconstruction and return to sport. / Paterno, Mark V.; Rauh, Mitchell J.; Schmitt, Laura C.; Ford, Kevin R.; Hewett, Timothy.

In: American Journal of Sports Medicine, Vol. 42, No. 7, 2014, p. 1567-1573.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Paterno, Mark V. ; Rauh, Mitchell J. ; Schmitt, Laura C. ; Ford, Kevin R. ; Hewett, Timothy. / Incidence of second ACL injuries 2 years after primary ACL reconstruction and return to sport. In: American Journal of Sports Medicine. 2014 ; Vol. 42, No. 7. pp. 1567-1573.
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abstract = "Background: The incidence of second anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries in the first 12 months after ACL reconstruction (ACLR) and return to sport (RTS) in a young, active population has been reported to be 15 times greater than that in a previously uninjured cohort. There are no reported estimates of whether this high relative rate of injury continues beyond the first year after RTS and ACLR. Hypothesis: The incidence rate of a subsequent ACL injury in the 2 years after ACLR and RTS would be less than the incidence rate reported within the first 12 months after RTS but greater than the ACL injury incidence rate in an uninjured cohort of young athletes. Study Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. Methods: Seventy-eight patients (mean age, 17.1 ± 3.1 years) who underwent ACLR and were ready to return to a pivoting/ cutting sport and 47 controls (mean age, 17.2 ± 2.6 years) who also participated in pivoting/cutting sports were prospectively enrolled. Each participant was followed for injury and athlete exposure (AE) data for a 24-month period after RTS. Twenty-three ACLR and 4 control participants suffered an ACL injury during this time. Incidence rate ratios (IRRs) were calculated to compare the rates (per 1000 AEs) of ACL injury in athletes in the ACLR and control groups. For the ACLR group, similar comparisons were conducted for side of injury by sex. Results: The overall incidence rate of a second ACL injury within 24 months after ACLR and RTS (1.39/1000 AEs) was nearly 6 times greater (IRR, 5.71; 95{\%} CI, 2.0-22.7; P = .0003) than that in healthy control participants (0.24/1000 AEs). The rate of injury within 24 months of RTS for female athletes in the ACLR group was almost 5 times greater (IRR, 4.51; 95{\%} CI, 1.5-18.2; P = .0004) than that for female controls. Although only a trend was observed, female patients within the ACLR group were twice as likely (IRR, 2.43; 95{\%} CI, 0.8-8.6) to suffer a contralateral injury (1.13/1000 AEs) than an ipsilateral injury (0.47/1000 AEs). Overall, 29.5{\%} of athletes suffered a second ACL injury within 24 months of RTS, with 20.5{\%} sustaining a contralateral injury and 9.0{\%} incurring a retear injury of the ipsilateral graft. There was a trend toward a higher proportion of female participants (23.7{\%}) who suffered a contralateral injury compared with male participants (10.5{\%}) (P = .18). Conversely, for ipsilateral injuries, the incidence proportion between female (8.5{\%}) and male (10.5{\%}) participants was similar. Conclusion: These data support the hypothesis that in the 24 months after ACLR and RTS, patients are at a greater risk to suffer a subsequent ACL injury compared with young athletes without a history of ACL injuries. In addition, the contralateral limb of female patients appears at greatest risk.",
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T1 - Incidence of second ACL injuries 2 years after primary ACL reconstruction and return to sport

AU - Paterno, Mark V.

AU - Rauh, Mitchell J.

AU - Schmitt, Laura C.

AU - Ford, Kevin R.

AU - Hewett, Timothy

PY - 2014

Y1 - 2014

N2 - Background: The incidence of second anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries in the first 12 months after ACL reconstruction (ACLR) and return to sport (RTS) in a young, active population has been reported to be 15 times greater than that in a previously uninjured cohort. There are no reported estimates of whether this high relative rate of injury continues beyond the first year after RTS and ACLR. Hypothesis: The incidence rate of a subsequent ACL injury in the 2 years after ACLR and RTS would be less than the incidence rate reported within the first 12 months after RTS but greater than the ACL injury incidence rate in an uninjured cohort of young athletes. Study Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. Methods: Seventy-eight patients (mean age, 17.1 ± 3.1 years) who underwent ACLR and were ready to return to a pivoting/ cutting sport and 47 controls (mean age, 17.2 ± 2.6 years) who also participated in pivoting/cutting sports were prospectively enrolled. Each participant was followed for injury and athlete exposure (AE) data for a 24-month period after RTS. Twenty-three ACLR and 4 control participants suffered an ACL injury during this time. Incidence rate ratios (IRRs) were calculated to compare the rates (per 1000 AEs) of ACL injury in athletes in the ACLR and control groups. For the ACLR group, similar comparisons were conducted for side of injury by sex. Results: The overall incidence rate of a second ACL injury within 24 months after ACLR and RTS (1.39/1000 AEs) was nearly 6 times greater (IRR, 5.71; 95% CI, 2.0-22.7; P = .0003) than that in healthy control participants (0.24/1000 AEs). The rate of injury within 24 months of RTS for female athletes in the ACLR group was almost 5 times greater (IRR, 4.51; 95% CI, 1.5-18.2; P = .0004) than that for female controls. Although only a trend was observed, female patients within the ACLR group were twice as likely (IRR, 2.43; 95% CI, 0.8-8.6) to suffer a contralateral injury (1.13/1000 AEs) than an ipsilateral injury (0.47/1000 AEs). Overall, 29.5% of athletes suffered a second ACL injury within 24 months of RTS, with 20.5% sustaining a contralateral injury and 9.0% incurring a retear injury of the ipsilateral graft. There was a trend toward a higher proportion of female participants (23.7%) who suffered a contralateral injury compared with male participants (10.5%) (P = .18). Conversely, for ipsilateral injuries, the incidence proportion between female (8.5%) and male (10.5%) participants was similar. Conclusion: These data support the hypothesis that in the 24 months after ACLR and RTS, patients are at a greater risk to suffer a subsequent ACL injury compared with young athletes without a history of ACL injuries. In addition, the contralateral limb of female patients appears at greatest risk.

AB - Background: The incidence of second anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries in the first 12 months after ACL reconstruction (ACLR) and return to sport (RTS) in a young, active population has been reported to be 15 times greater than that in a previously uninjured cohort. There are no reported estimates of whether this high relative rate of injury continues beyond the first year after RTS and ACLR. Hypothesis: The incidence rate of a subsequent ACL injury in the 2 years after ACLR and RTS would be less than the incidence rate reported within the first 12 months after RTS but greater than the ACL injury incidence rate in an uninjured cohort of young athletes. Study Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. Methods: Seventy-eight patients (mean age, 17.1 ± 3.1 years) who underwent ACLR and were ready to return to a pivoting/ cutting sport and 47 controls (mean age, 17.2 ± 2.6 years) who also participated in pivoting/cutting sports were prospectively enrolled. Each participant was followed for injury and athlete exposure (AE) data for a 24-month period after RTS. Twenty-three ACLR and 4 control participants suffered an ACL injury during this time. Incidence rate ratios (IRRs) were calculated to compare the rates (per 1000 AEs) of ACL injury in athletes in the ACLR and control groups. For the ACLR group, similar comparisons were conducted for side of injury by sex. Results: The overall incidence rate of a second ACL injury within 24 months after ACLR and RTS (1.39/1000 AEs) was nearly 6 times greater (IRR, 5.71; 95% CI, 2.0-22.7; P = .0003) than that in healthy control participants (0.24/1000 AEs). The rate of injury within 24 months of RTS for female athletes in the ACLR group was almost 5 times greater (IRR, 4.51; 95% CI, 1.5-18.2; P = .0004) than that for female controls. Although only a trend was observed, female patients within the ACLR group were twice as likely (IRR, 2.43; 95% CI, 0.8-8.6) to suffer a contralateral injury (1.13/1000 AEs) than an ipsilateral injury (0.47/1000 AEs). Overall, 29.5% of athletes suffered a second ACL injury within 24 months of RTS, with 20.5% sustaining a contralateral injury and 9.0% incurring a retear injury of the ipsilateral graft. There was a trend toward a higher proportion of female participants (23.7%) who suffered a contralateral injury compared with male participants (10.5%) (P = .18). Conversely, for ipsilateral injuries, the incidence proportion between female (8.5%) and male (10.5%) participants was similar. Conclusion: These data support the hypothesis that in the 24 months after ACLR and RTS, patients are at a greater risk to suffer a subsequent ACL injury compared with young athletes without a history of ACL injuries. In addition, the contralateral limb of female patients appears at greatest risk.

KW - Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction

KW - Incidence rate

KW - Second injury

KW - Subsequent injury

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