Protease inhibitor (PI) therapy for patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus has been associated with lipid disorders and insulin resistance. We compared the incidence of myocardial infarction (MI) among participants receiving treatment with PIs with or without nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (nRTIs) to nRTI therapy alone in 30 phase II/III double-blind, randomized studies conducted before 1999 for the first 4 PI drugs. In most trials included in this analysis, participants could receive combination therapy with a PI plus nRTIs in open-label extensions after the blinded phase concluded. Person-years (PY) of follow-up were calculated from treatment initiation to the diagnosis of MI, or to the end of the randomized phases for nRTI-only therapy or to the conclusion of the studies for PI-containing regimens. Separate analyses were conducted for the randomized and the randomized-plus-extension phases. Among 10,986 participants, 7951 (72%) received PI drugs at some point for an average duration of 12 months. There were 10 MIs (1.31/1000 PY) in the randomized phases and 19 MIs (1.63/1000 PY) in the randomized-plus-extension phases. The overall stratified relative risk of MI for PI-containing (1.82 MI/1000 PY) versus nRTI-only (1.05 MI/1000 PY) regimens of 1.69 was not significantly increased (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.54 to 7.48). The absolute difference in MI risk was +0.77 (95% CI, -0.71 to +2.26) MIs/1000 PY. Compared with NRTI-only therapy, patients receiving PI-containing regimens for an average of 1 year did not have significantly more MIs, but the upper bound of the 95% CI indicates there may be up to 2.3 additional MIs per 1000 PY. Although studies with a longer duration of PI therapy are in progress to assess whether a later increase in MI incidence occurs, our analysis did not demonstrate a dramatic increase in MI risk during the first year of PI therapy.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Infectious Diseases