Incidence, Mechanisms, and Predictors of Mean Systolic Gradients ≥20 mm Hg after Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation

Vidhu Anand, Mahmoud A. Ali, Jwan Naser, Vuyisile T. Nkomo, Patricia A. Pellikka, Mackram F. Eleid, Gurpreet S. Sandhu, Kevin L. Greason, Sorin V. Pislaru

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

There is a significant increase in transvalvular gradients after transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) in some patients; however, mechanisms underlying the greater than expected gradients are unknown. We sought to determine the incidence and mechanisms of greater than expected gradients post-TAVI. A total of 424 patients who underwent TAVI at our institution between November 2008 and August 2015 and had at least 1 follow-up echocardiogram were included in the study. Greater than expected gradients were defined as mean systolic Doppler gradients ≥20 mm Hg. The primary end-point was incidence and mechanisms of mean systolic Doppler gradients ≥20 mm Hg. A total of 36 (8%) patients had mean systolic Doppler gradients ≥20 mm Hg. The mechanisms of mean systolic Doppler gradients ≥20 mm Hg were: patient prosthesis mismatch in 15 (42%) patients, high cardiac output in 13 (36%), prosthetic and periprosthetic regurgitation in 11 (31%), stenosis in 5 (14%), and multiple mechanisms in 8 (22%). Patients with mean systolic Doppler gradients ≥20 mm Hg had higher cardiac re-hospitalization rate, but no difference in mortality or major cardiovascular events when compared with the normal gradient group. Smaller prosthetic valve size (p <0.0001) and larger body mass index (p = 0.02) were associated with mean systolic Doppler gradients ≥20 mm Hg; warfarin therapy at discharge had no effect on gradients. In conclusion, about 8% patients had mean systolic Doppler gradients ≥20 mm Hg following TAVI, and patient-prosthesis mismatch was the most common mechanism. The mean systolic Doppler gradients ≥20 mm Hg after TAVI are not benign and warrant careful surveillance.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalAmerican Journal of Cardiology
DOIs
StateAccepted/In press - Jan 1 2020

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine

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