Murine models are used in a wide range of renal studies, from those assessing the role of molecular and genetic factors in mammalian development and congenital diseases, to developing and screening new therapeutics. In studies of these models, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques are playing an ever increasing role in characterizing both structural and functional changes of the kidneys. This chapter details the use of MRI for this purpose—from acquisition to image analysis. An overview of the wide range of characterization that can be performed by this technology is first given. Next, basic image analysis and more advanced image processing techniques are detailed. The utility of MR for characterizing anatomical and physiological properties of murine models of disease is supplemented with data from our work studying polycystic kidney disease.