Amyloidosis refers to a group of rare but potentially fatal, protein misfolding diseases. The heart is frequently involved in the most common types, that is, immunoglobulin light chain and transthyretin amyloidosis and is the single most important predictor of patient outcomes. A major limitation in improving patient outcomes, in addition to developing novel therapeutics, is the late diagnosis of the disease. Once suspected, an organ for biopsy should be targeted and the amyloid type should be identified by mass spectrometry. An endomyocardial biopsy should be offered if cardiac involvement is in doubt. Echocardiography, MRI and nuclear imaging can provide valuable diagnostic and prognostic information and can secure the diagnosis if amyloid has been identified in an extracardiac tissue.
- heart failure
- heart failure with preserved ejection fraction
- immunoglobulin free light chains
- infiltrative cardiomyopathies
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Internal Medicine
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine