Purpose: The goals of this study were (a) to investigate whether preconditioning of immunocompetent mice with PC-61-mediated regulatory T-cell (Treg) depletion and interleukin-2 (IL-2) would enhance systemic delivery of reovirus into subcutaneous tumors and (b) to test whether cyclophosphamide (CPA), which is clinically approved, could mimic PC-61 for modification of Treg activity for translation into the next generation of clinical trials for intravenous delivery of reovirus. Experimental Design: C57BI/6 mice bearing subcutaneous B16 tumors were treated with CPA or PC-61 followed by 10 injections of low-dose IL-2. Mice were then treated with intravenous reovirus. Virus localization to tumor and other organs was measured along with tumor growth and systemic toxicity. Results: Preconditioning with PC-61 and IL-2 enhanced localization of intravenous oncolytic reovirus to tumors with significantly increased antitumor therapy compared with controls (P < 0.01). However, with the maximal achievable dose of reovirus, Treg modification + IL-2 was also associated with systemic toxicity. CPA (100 mg/kg) did not deplete, but did functionally inhibit,Treg. CPA also mimicked PC-61, in combination with IL-2, by inducing "hyperactivated" NK cells. Consistent with this, preconditioning with CPA + IL-2 enhanced therapy of intravenously delivered, intermediate-dose reovirus to a level indistinguishable from that induced by PC-61 + IL-2, without any detectable toxicity. Conclusion: With careful reference to ongoing clinical trials with dose escalation of reovirus alone and in combination with CPA, we propose that future clinical trials of CPA + IL-2 + reovirus will allow for both improved levels of virus delivery and increased antitumor efficacy.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cancer Research