Objective: To assess changes in inpatient transfusion utilization and patient outcomes with implementation of a comprehensive patient blood management (PBM) program at a large US medical center. Patients and Methods: This is an observational study of graduated PBM implementation for hospitalized adults (age ≥18 years) from January 1, 2010, through December 31, 2017, at two integrated hospital campuses at a major academic US medical center. Allogeneic transfusion utilization and clinical outcomes were assessed over time through segmented regression with multivariable adjustment comparing observed outcomes against projected outcomes in the absence of PBM activities. Results: In total, 400,998 admissions were included. Total allogeneic transfusions per 1000 admissions decreased from 607 to 405 over the study time frame, corresponding to an absolute risk reduction for transfusion of 6.0% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.6%, 8.3%; P<.001) and a 22% (95% CI: 6%, 37%; P=.006) decrease in the rate of transfusions over projected. The risk of transfusion decreased for all blood components except cryoprecipitate. Transfusion reductions were experienced for all major surgery types except liver transplantation, which remained stable over time. Hospital length of stay (multiplicative increase in geometric mean 0.85 [95% CI: 0.81, 0.89]; P<.001) and incident in-hospital adverse events (absolute risk reduction: 1.5% [95% CI: 0.1%, 3.0%]; P=.04) were lower than projected at the end of the study time frame. Conclusion: Patient blood management implementation for hospitalized patients in a large academic center was associated with substantial reductions in transfusion utilization and improved clinical outcomes. Broad-scale implementation of PBM in US hospitals is feasible without signal for patient harm.
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