Impact of Prostate-specific Antigen (PSA) Screening Trials and Revised PSA Screening Guidelines on Rates of Prostate Biopsy and Postbiopsy Complications [figure presented]

Boris Gershman, Holly K. Van Houten, Jeph Herrin, Daniel M. Moreira, Simon P. Kim, Nilay D. Shah, R. Jeffrey Karnes

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

32 Scopus citations

Abstract

Background Prostate biopsy and postbiopsy complications represent important risks of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening. Although landmark randomized trials and updated guidelines have challenged routine PSA screening, it is unclear whether these publications have affected rates of biopsy or postbiopsy complications. Objective To evaluate whether publication of the 2008 and 2012 US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommendations, the 2009 European Randomized Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer and the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial, or the 2013 American Urological Association (AUA) guidelines was associated with changes in rates of biopsy or postbiopsy complications, and to identify predictors of postbiopsy complications. Design, setting, and participants This quasiexperimental study used administrative claims of 5 279 315 commercially insured US men aged ≥40 yr from 2005 to 2014, of whom 104 584 underwent biopsy. Interventions Publications on PSA screening. Outcome measurements and statistical analysis Interrupted time-series analysis was used to evaluate the association of publications with rates of biopsy and 30-d complications. Logistic regression was performed to identify predictors of complications. Results and limitations From 2005 to 2014, biopsy rates fell 33% from 64.1 to 42.8 per 100 000 person-months, with immediate reductions following the 2008 USPSTF recommendations (−10.1; 95% confidence interval [CI], −17.1 to −3.0; p < 0.001), 2012 USPSTF recommendations (−13.8; 95% CI, −21.0 to −6.7; p < 0.001), and 2013 AUA guidelines (−8.8; 95% CI, −16.7 to −0.92; p = 0.03). Concurrently, complication rates decreased 10% from 8.7 to 7.8 per 100 000 person-months, with a reduction following the 2012 USPSTF recommendations (−2.5; 95% CI, −4.5 to −0.45; p = 0.02). However, the proportion of men undergoing biopsy who experienced complications increased from 14% to 18%, driven by nonsepsis infectious complications (p < 0.001). Predictors of complications included prior fluoroquinolone use (odds ratio [OR]: 1.27; 95% CI, 1.22–1.32; p < 0.001), anticoagulant use (OR: 1.14; 95% CI, 1.04–1.25; p = 0.004), and age ≥70 yr (OR: 1.25; 95% CI, 1.15–1.36; p < 0.001). Limitations included the retrospective design. Conclusions Although there has been an absolute reduction in rates of biopsy and 30-d complications, the relative morbidity of biopsy continues to increase. These observations suggest a need to reduce the morbidity of biopsy. Patient summary Absolute rates of biopsy and postbiopsy complications have decreased following landmark publications about prostate-specific antigen screening; however, the relative morbidity of biopsy continues to increase.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)55-65
Number of pages11
JournalEuropean urology
Volume71
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2017

Keywords

  • Complications
  • Guidelines
  • PSA screening
  • Prostate biopsy
  • Randomized trials

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Urology

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