Background: Surgeons are at high risk of developing musculoskeletal disorders. Study Design: This study was designed to identify risk factors and assess intraoperative physical stressors using subjective and objective measures, including type of procedure and equipment used. Wearable sensors and pre- and postoperation surveys were analyzed. Results: Data from 116 cases (34 male and 19 female surgeons) were collected across surgical specialties. Surgeons reported increased pain in the neck, upper, and lower back both during and after operations. High-stress intraoperative postures were also revealed by the real-time measurement in the neck and back. Surgical duration also impacted physical pain and fatigue. Open procedures had more stressful physical postures than laparoscopic procedures. Loupe usage negatively impacted neck postures. Conclusions: This study highlights the fact that musculoskeletal disorders are common in surgeons and characterizes surgeons’ intraoperative posture as well as surgeon pain and fatigue across specialties. Defining intraoperative ergonomic risk factors is of paramount importance to protect the well-being of the surgical workforce.
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