Impact of Frailty on Outcomes After Primary and Revision Total Hip Arthroplasty

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2 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: Frailty and disability from arthritis are closely intertwined and little is known about the impact of frailty on total hip arthroplasty (THA) outcomes. We hypothesized that higher preoperative frailty is associated with more adverse events following THA. Methods: All patients (≥50 years) undergoing unilateral primary or revision THA at a single institution from 2005 through 2016 were included. We analyzed the association of frailty (measured by a frailty deficit index) with postoperative outcomes in hospital, within 90 days, and within 1 year using multivariable logistic and Cox regression, adjusting for age. Results: Among 8640 patients undergoing THA (6502 primary and 2138 revisions; median age 68 years), 22.7%, 32.9%, and 44.4% were classified as frail, vulnerable, and nonfrail, respectively. Frail patients tended to be female, older, sicker (American Society of Anesthesiologists ≥3), and received general anesthesia more frequently. Relative to nonfrail patients, frail patients had significantly increased odds of wound complications/hematoma (odds ratio 2.01) and reoperation (odds ratio 2.74) while in hospital, and increased risks for mortality (1-year hazards ratio [HR] 5.65), infection (1-year HR 3.63), dislocation (1-year HR 2.10), wound complications/hematoma (1-year HR 2.61), and reoperation (1-year HR 2.22) within 90 days and 1 year. Frailty was also associated with >5.5-fold increased mortality risk 1 year following THA. No significant associations with aseptic loosening, periprosthetic fracture, or heterotopic ossification were observed. Conclusion: A higher preoperative frailty index is associated with increased mortality and perioperative complications following primary and revision THA. The proposed frailty deficit index provides clinically important information for healthcare providers to use when counseling patients prior to decision for surgery.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalJournal of Arthroplasty
DOIs
StateAccepted/In press - Jan 1 2018

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Arthroplasty
Hip
Reoperation
Hematoma
Mortality
Odds Ratio
Periprosthetic Fractures
Heterotopic Ossification
Wounds and Injuries
Health Personnel
General Anesthesia
Arthritis
Counseling
Logistic Models
Infection

Keywords

  • activities of daily living
  • frailty
  • outcomes
  • perioperative complications
  • total hip arthroplasty

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine

Cite this

@article{441e635d52f046f99b0d099a0785dc7f,
title = "Impact of Frailty on Outcomes After Primary and Revision Total Hip Arthroplasty",
abstract = "Background: Frailty and disability from arthritis are closely intertwined and little is known about the impact of frailty on total hip arthroplasty (THA) outcomes. We hypothesized that higher preoperative frailty is associated with more adverse events following THA. Methods: All patients (≥50 years) undergoing unilateral primary or revision THA at a single institution from 2005 through 2016 were included. We analyzed the association of frailty (measured by a frailty deficit index) with postoperative outcomes in hospital, within 90 days, and within 1 year using multivariable logistic and Cox regression, adjusting for age. Results: Among 8640 patients undergoing THA (6502 primary and 2138 revisions; median age 68 years), 22.7{\%}, 32.9{\%}, and 44.4{\%} were classified as frail, vulnerable, and nonfrail, respectively. Frail patients tended to be female, older, sicker (American Society of Anesthesiologists ≥3), and received general anesthesia more frequently. Relative to nonfrail patients, frail patients had significantly increased odds of wound complications/hematoma (odds ratio 2.01) and reoperation (odds ratio 2.74) while in hospital, and increased risks for mortality (1-year hazards ratio [HR] 5.65), infection (1-year HR 3.63), dislocation (1-year HR 2.10), wound complications/hematoma (1-year HR 2.61), and reoperation (1-year HR 2.22) within 90 days and 1 year. Frailty was also associated with >5.5-fold increased mortality risk 1 year following THA. No significant associations with aseptic loosening, periprosthetic fracture, or heterotopic ossification were observed. Conclusion: A higher preoperative frailty index is associated with increased mortality and perioperative complications following primary and revision THA. The proposed frailty deficit index provides clinically important information for healthcare providers to use when counseling patients prior to decision for surgery.",
keywords = "activities of daily living, frailty, outcomes, perioperative complications, total hip arthroplasty",
author = "Johnson, {Rebecca L.} and Matthew Abdel and Frank, {Ryan D.} and Alanna Chamberlain and Habermann, {Elizabeth B} and Mantilla, {Carlos Bernardo}",
year = "2018",
month = "1",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1016/j.arth.2018.09.078",
language = "English (US)",
journal = "Journal of Arthroplasty",
issn = "0883-5403",
publisher = "Churchill Livingstone",

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TY - JOUR

T1 - Impact of Frailty on Outcomes After Primary and Revision Total Hip Arthroplasty

AU - Johnson, Rebecca L.

AU - Abdel, Matthew

AU - Frank, Ryan D.

AU - Chamberlain, Alanna

AU - Habermann, Elizabeth B

AU - Mantilla, Carlos Bernardo

PY - 2018/1/1

Y1 - 2018/1/1

N2 - Background: Frailty and disability from arthritis are closely intertwined and little is known about the impact of frailty on total hip arthroplasty (THA) outcomes. We hypothesized that higher preoperative frailty is associated with more adverse events following THA. Methods: All patients (≥50 years) undergoing unilateral primary or revision THA at a single institution from 2005 through 2016 were included. We analyzed the association of frailty (measured by a frailty deficit index) with postoperative outcomes in hospital, within 90 days, and within 1 year using multivariable logistic and Cox regression, adjusting for age. Results: Among 8640 patients undergoing THA (6502 primary and 2138 revisions; median age 68 years), 22.7%, 32.9%, and 44.4% were classified as frail, vulnerable, and nonfrail, respectively. Frail patients tended to be female, older, sicker (American Society of Anesthesiologists ≥3), and received general anesthesia more frequently. Relative to nonfrail patients, frail patients had significantly increased odds of wound complications/hematoma (odds ratio 2.01) and reoperation (odds ratio 2.74) while in hospital, and increased risks for mortality (1-year hazards ratio [HR] 5.65), infection (1-year HR 3.63), dislocation (1-year HR 2.10), wound complications/hematoma (1-year HR 2.61), and reoperation (1-year HR 2.22) within 90 days and 1 year. Frailty was also associated with >5.5-fold increased mortality risk 1 year following THA. No significant associations with aseptic loosening, periprosthetic fracture, or heterotopic ossification were observed. Conclusion: A higher preoperative frailty index is associated with increased mortality and perioperative complications following primary and revision THA. The proposed frailty deficit index provides clinically important information for healthcare providers to use when counseling patients prior to decision for surgery.

AB - Background: Frailty and disability from arthritis are closely intertwined and little is known about the impact of frailty on total hip arthroplasty (THA) outcomes. We hypothesized that higher preoperative frailty is associated with more adverse events following THA. Methods: All patients (≥50 years) undergoing unilateral primary or revision THA at a single institution from 2005 through 2016 were included. We analyzed the association of frailty (measured by a frailty deficit index) with postoperative outcomes in hospital, within 90 days, and within 1 year using multivariable logistic and Cox regression, adjusting for age. Results: Among 8640 patients undergoing THA (6502 primary and 2138 revisions; median age 68 years), 22.7%, 32.9%, and 44.4% were classified as frail, vulnerable, and nonfrail, respectively. Frail patients tended to be female, older, sicker (American Society of Anesthesiologists ≥3), and received general anesthesia more frequently. Relative to nonfrail patients, frail patients had significantly increased odds of wound complications/hematoma (odds ratio 2.01) and reoperation (odds ratio 2.74) while in hospital, and increased risks for mortality (1-year hazards ratio [HR] 5.65), infection (1-year HR 3.63), dislocation (1-year HR 2.10), wound complications/hematoma (1-year HR 2.61), and reoperation (1-year HR 2.22) within 90 days and 1 year. Frailty was also associated with >5.5-fold increased mortality risk 1 year following THA. No significant associations with aseptic loosening, periprosthetic fracture, or heterotopic ossification were observed. Conclusion: A higher preoperative frailty index is associated with increased mortality and perioperative complications following primary and revision THA. The proposed frailty deficit index provides clinically important information for healthcare providers to use when counseling patients prior to decision for surgery.

KW - activities of daily living

KW - frailty

KW - outcomes

KW - perioperative complications

KW - total hip arthroplasty

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U2 - 10.1016/j.arth.2018.09.078

DO - 10.1016/j.arth.2018.09.078

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JO - Journal of Arthroplasty

JF - Journal of Arthroplasty

SN - 0883-5403

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