Impact of Arterial Load and Loading Sequence on Left Ventricular Tissue Velocities in Humans

Barry A Borlaug, Vojtech Melenovsky, Margaret May Redfield, Kristy Kessler, Hyuk Jae Chang, Theodore P. Abraham, David A. Kass

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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Abstract

Objectives: The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between individual components of left ventricular (LV) afterload and tissue Doppler echocardiography (TDE) velocities in humans. Background: Acute increases in afterload slow diastolic relaxation as assessed invasively, yet little is known about chronic effects of load and loading sequence on LV TDE velocities. Methods: Forty-eight subjects underwent echo Doppler and color-coded TDE with comprehensive noninvasive vascular assessment. Arterial afterload was measured by effective arterial elastance (Ea) and systemic vascular resistance index (SVRI), and loading sequence was quantified by early- (carotid characteristic impedance [Zc]) and late-systolic loads (augmentation index [cAI]; late pressure-time integral [PTI3]). Vascular stiffness was measured by carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV) and total arterial compliance. Results: Early-diastolic velocity (E′) varied inversely with Zc, SVRI, Ea, and PWV (r = -0.4 to 0.5; β = 1.0 to 1.2; p ≤ 0.004), but late-systolic load (cAI and PTI3 r = -0.6; β = 1.6; both p < 0.0001) and arterial compliance (r = 0.6; β = 1.4; p < 0.0001) had the strongest associations with E′. Load dependence was not altered by the presence of hypertension, and in multivariate analysis only cAI and Zc significantly predicted E′, even after adjusting for age (p < 0.05). Peak systolic velocity was additionally found to be inversely related to afterload, whereas other measures of contractility were not. Conclusions: Diastolic and systolic tissue velocities vary inversely with arterial afterload, with late-systolic load having the greatest influence on E′. These findings may partly explain the decrease in early relaxation velocity noted with aging, hypertension, and patients with heart failure. Strategies to reduce afterload, vascular stiffening, and wave reflections may prove useful to enhance early diastolic relaxation.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1570-1577
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of the American College of Cardiology
Volume50
Issue number16
DOIs
StatePublished - Oct 16 2007

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Doppler Echocardiography
Pulse Wave Analysis
Vascular Resistance
Compliance
Blood Vessels
Hypertension
Vascular Stiffness
Thigh
Electric Impedance
Multivariate Analysis
Heart Failure
Color
Pressure

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Nursing(all)

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Impact of Arterial Load and Loading Sequence on Left Ventricular Tissue Velocities in Humans. / Borlaug, Barry A; Melenovsky, Vojtech; Redfield, Margaret May; Kessler, Kristy; Chang, Hyuk Jae; Abraham, Theodore P.; Kass, David A.

In: Journal of the American College of Cardiology, Vol. 50, No. 16, 16.10.2007, p. 1570-1577.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Borlaug, Barry A ; Melenovsky, Vojtech ; Redfield, Margaret May ; Kessler, Kristy ; Chang, Hyuk Jae ; Abraham, Theodore P. ; Kass, David A. / Impact of Arterial Load and Loading Sequence on Left Ventricular Tissue Velocities in Humans. In: Journal of the American College of Cardiology. 2007 ; Vol. 50, No. 16. pp. 1570-1577.
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abstract = "Objectives: The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between individual components of left ventricular (LV) afterload and tissue Doppler echocardiography (TDE) velocities in humans. Background: Acute increases in afterload slow diastolic relaxation as assessed invasively, yet little is known about chronic effects of load and loading sequence on LV TDE velocities. Methods: Forty-eight subjects underwent echo Doppler and color-coded TDE with comprehensive noninvasive vascular assessment. Arterial afterload was measured by effective arterial elastance (Ea) and systemic vascular resistance index (SVRI), and loading sequence was quantified by early- (carotid characteristic impedance [Zc]) and late-systolic loads (augmentation index [cAI]; late pressure-time integral [PTI3]). Vascular stiffness was measured by carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV) and total arterial compliance. Results: Early-diastolic velocity (E′) varied inversely with Zc, SVRI, Ea, and PWV (r = -0.4 to 0.5; β = 1.0 to 1.2; p ≤ 0.004), but late-systolic load (cAI and PTI3 r = -0.6; β = 1.6; both p < 0.0001) and arterial compliance (r = 0.6; β = 1.4; p < 0.0001) had the strongest associations with E′. Load dependence was not altered by the presence of hypertension, and in multivariate analysis only cAI and Zc significantly predicted E′, even after adjusting for age (p < 0.05). Peak systolic velocity was additionally found to be inversely related to afterload, whereas other measures of contractility were not. Conclusions: Diastolic and systolic tissue velocities vary inversely with arterial afterload, with late-systolic load having the greatest influence on E′. These findings may partly explain the decrease in early relaxation velocity noted with aging, hypertension, and patients with heart failure. Strategies to reduce afterload, vascular stiffening, and wave reflections may prove useful to enhance early diastolic relaxation.",
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T1 - Impact of Arterial Load and Loading Sequence on Left Ventricular Tissue Velocities in Humans

AU - Borlaug, Barry A

AU - Melenovsky, Vojtech

AU - Redfield, Margaret May

AU - Kessler, Kristy

AU - Chang, Hyuk Jae

AU - Abraham, Theodore P.

AU - Kass, David A.

PY - 2007/10/16

Y1 - 2007/10/16

N2 - Objectives: The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between individual components of left ventricular (LV) afterload and tissue Doppler echocardiography (TDE) velocities in humans. Background: Acute increases in afterload slow diastolic relaxation as assessed invasively, yet little is known about chronic effects of load and loading sequence on LV TDE velocities. Methods: Forty-eight subjects underwent echo Doppler and color-coded TDE with comprehensive noninvasive vascular assessment. Arterial afterload was measured by effective arterial elastance (Ea) and systemic vascular resistance index (SVRI), and loading sequence was quantified by early- (carotid characteristic impedance [Zc]) and late-systolic loads (augmentation index [cAI]; late pressure-time integral [PTI3]). Vascular stiffness was measured by carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV) and total arterial compliance. Results: Early-diastolic velocity (E′) varied inversely with Zc, SVRI, Ea, and PWV (r = -0.4 to 0.5; β = 1.0 to 1.2; p ≤ 0.004), but late-systolic load (cAI and PTI3 r = -0.6; β = 1.6; both p < 0.0001) and arterial compliance (r = 0.6; β = 1.4; p < 0.0001) had the strongest associations with E′. Load dependence was not altered by the presence of hypertension, and in multivariate analysis only cAI and Zc significantly predicted E′, even after adjusting for age (p < 0.05). Peak systolic velocity was additionally found to be inversely related to afterload, whereas other measures of contractility were not. Conclusions: Diastolic and systolic tissue velocities vary inversely with arterial afterload, with late-systolic load having the greatest influence on E′. These findings may partly explain the decrease in early relaxation velocity noted with aging, hypertension, and patients with heart failure. Strategies to reduce afterload, vascular stiffening, and wave reflections may prove useful to enhance early diastolic relaxation.

AB - Objectives: The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between individual components of left ventricular (LV) afterload and tissue Doppler echocardiography (TDE) velocities in humans. Background: Acute increases in afterload slow diastolic relaxation as assessed invasively, yet little is known about chronic effects of load and loading sequence on LV TDE velocities. Methods: Forty-eight subjects underwent echo Doppler and color-coded TDE with comprehensive noninvasive vascular assessment. Arterial afterload was measured by effective arterial elastance (Ea) and systemic vascular resistance index (SVRI), and loading sequence was quantified by early- (carotid characteristic impedance [Zc]) and late-systolic loads (augmentation index [cAI]; late pressure-time integral [PTI3]). Vascular stiffness was measured by carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV) and total arterial compliance. Results: Early-diastolic velocity (E′) varied inversely with Zc, SVRI, Ea, and PWV (r = -0.4 to 0.5; β = 1.0 to 1.2; p ≤ 0.004), but late-systolic load (cAI and PTI3 r = -0.6; β = 1.6; both p < 0.0001) and arterial compliance (r = 0.6; β = 1.4; p < 0.0001) had the strongest associations with E′. Load dependence was not altered by the presence of hypertension, and in multivariate analysis only cAI and Zc significantly predicted E′, even after adjusting for age (p < 0.05). Peak systolic velocity was additionally found to be inversely related to afterload, whereas other measures of contractility were not. Conclusions: Diastolic and systolic tissue velocities vary inversely with arterial afterload, with late-systolic load having the greatest influence on E′. These findings may partly explain the decrease in early relaxation velocity noted with aging, hypertension, and patients with heart failure. Strategies to reduce afterload, vascular stiffening, and wave reflections may prove useful to enhance early diastolic relaxation.

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