Immunotherapies targeting stimulatory pathways and beyond

Julian A. Marin-Acevedo, Erin Marie O. Kimbrough, Rami Manochakian, Yujie Zhao, Yanyan Lou

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

Abstract

Co-stimulatory and co-inhibitory molecules play a critical role in T cell function. Tumor cells escape immune surveillance by promoting immunosuppression. Immunotherapy targeting inhibitory molecules like anti-CTLA-4 and anti-PD-1/PD-L1 were developed to overcome these immunosuppressive effects. These agents have demonstrated remarkable, durable responses in a small subset of patients. The other mechanisms for enhancing anti-tumor activities are to target the stimulatory pathways that are expressed on T cells or other immune cells. In this review, we summarize current phase I/II clinical trials evaluating novel immunotherapies targeting stimulatory pathways and outline their advantages, limitations, and future directions.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number78
JournalJournal of Hematology and Oncology
Volume14
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 2021

Keywords

  • Cancer
  • Co-stimulatory pathway
  • Cytotoxic T lymphocytes
  • Immune checkpoint
  • Immune evasion
  • Immunotherapy
  • Tumor microenvironment

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Hematology
  • Molecular Biology
  • Oncology
  • Cancer Research

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