Immunomodulatory effects of sex hormones: Requirements for pregnancy and relevance in melanoma

Elizabeth Ann L Enninga, Shernan G. Holtan, Douglas J. Creedon, Roxana S Dronca, Wendy K. Nevala, Simona Ognjanovic, Svetomir Nenad Markovic

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

21 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Similarities between the pathologic progression of cancer and the physiologic process of placentation (eg, proliferation, invasion, and local/systemic tolerance) have been recognized for many years. Sex hormones such as human chorionic gonadotropin, estrogens, progesterone, and others contribute to induction of immunologic tolerance at the beginning of gestation. Sex hormones have been shown to play contributory roles in the growth of cancers such as breast cancer, prostrate cancer, endometrial cancer, and ovarian cancer, but their involvement as putative mediators of the immunologic escape of cancer is still being elucidated. Herein, we compare the emerging mechanism by which sex hormones modulate systemic immunity in pregnancy and their potentially similar role in cancer. To do this, we conducted a PubMed search using combinations of the following keywords: "immune regulation," "sex hormones," "pregnancy," "melanoma," and "cancer." We did not limit our search to specific publication dates. Mimicking the maternal immune response to pregnancy, especially in late gestation, might aid in design of better therapies to reconstitute endogenous antitumor immunity and improve survival.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)520-535
Number of pages16
JournalMayo Clinic Proceedings
Volume89
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - 2014

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Gonadal Steroid Hormones
Melanoma
Pregnancy
Neoplasms
Immunity
Placentation
Chorionic Gonadotropin
Endometrial Neoplasms
PubMed
Ovarian Neoplasms
Progesterone
Publications
Estrogens
Mothers
Breast Neoplasms
Growth

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)

Cite this

Immunomodulatory effects of sex hormones : Requirements for pregnancy and relevance in melanoma. / Enninga, Elizabeth Ann L; Holtan, Shernan G.; Creedon, Douglas J.; Dronca, Roxana S; Nevala, Wendy K.; Ognjanovic, Simona; Markovic, Svetomir Nenad.

In: Mayo Clinic Proceedings, Vol. 89, No. 4, 2014, p. 520-535.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Enninga, Elizabeth Ann L ; Holtan, Shernan G. ; Creedon, Douglas J. ; Dronca, Roxana S ; Nevala, Wendy K. ; Ognjanovic, Simona ; Markovic, Svetomir Nenad. / Immunomodulatory effects of sex hormones : Requirements for pregnancy and relevance in melanoma. In: Mayo Clinic Proceedings. 2014 ; Vol. 89, No. 4. pp. 520-535.
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