Dysregulation of the bone morphogenic protein (BMP)4-signaling pathway can explain many developmental and postnatal features of fibrodysplasia ossificans progressive (FOP). However, many puzzling clinical features of the disease strongly implicate an underlying immunological component to the disorder. In this article, we review features of the BMP4 signaling pathway that regulate the immune system, and suggest an integrated hypothesis for FOP that accounts for both BMP-related abnormalities and immunological features of the condition.
- Bone morphogenic protein (BMP)4-signaling pathway
- Fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva (FOP)
- Immune system
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
- Orthopedics and Sports Medicine