A 6-year-old boy with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) developed aphasia and quadriplegia 3 months before his death. Cerebral vascular ectasia and multiple cerebral infarcts were noted on premortem radiological studies. Postmortem evaluation revealed diffuse aneurysmal dilatation of the circle of Willis associated with fresh and organizing thrombi, destruction of the elastic lamina, and marked intimal fibroplasia. Multiple cerebral infarcts and subacute AIDS encephalitis with basal ganglia calcification were also present. Immunohistochemistry with a monoclonal antibody (anti-gp41) to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) demonstrated positively stained cells in the arterial wall of the circle of Willis and in the cerebral parenchyma. Double immunostaining demonstrated that gp41-positive cells in the circle of Willis were also positive for a macrophage marker or leukocyte-common antigen, but not with an endothelial marker. Some macrophages or microglia in the cerebrum were also colabeled with anti-gp41. These results suggest that HIV may be directly involved in vascular pathology associated with pediatric AIDS..
- Cerebral arteritis
- Subacute encephalitis
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pathology and Forensic Medicine
- Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health