Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance of the immunoglobulin M class was diagnosed in 213 patients at the Mayo Clinic, 29 (14%) of whom developed lymphoma, Waldenström macroglobulinemia, or a related disorder over 1567 person-years of follow-up. The cumulative probability of progression was 10% at 5 years, 18% at 10 years, and 24% at 15 years, or approximately 1.5% per year. The concentration of serum monoclonal protein at diagnosis and the initial serum albumin value were the only independent predictors of progression with multivariate analysis. By contrast, during 285 person-years of follow-up, 34 (71%) of 48 patients with smoldering Waldenström macroglobulinemia (SWM) progressed to Waldenström macroglobulinemia (WM), which required therapy, along with amyloid light chain (AL) amyloidosis (1) and lymphoma (1). The cumulative probability of progression was 6% at 1 year, 39% at 3 years, 59% at 5 years, and 65% at 10 years. The percentage of lymphoplasmacytic cells in the bone marrow, size of the serum monoclonal (M) spike, and hemoglobin value were significant independent risk factors for progression.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cancer Research