Background: New-onset diabetes mellitus after a pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) remains poorly defined. The aim of this study was to define the incidence and predictive factors of immediate post-resection diabetes mellitus (iPRDM). Methods: Retrospective review of patients undergoing PD from January 2004 through to July 2010. Immediate post-resection diabetes mellitus was defined as diabetes requiring pharmacological treatment within 30 days post-operatively. Logistic regression was conducted to identify factors predictive of iPRDM. Results: Of 778 patients undergoing PD, 214 were excluded owing to pre-operative diabetes (n= 192), declined research authorization (n= 14) or death prior to hospital discharge (n= 8); the remaining 564 patients comprised the study population. iPRDM occurred in 22 patients (4%) who were more likely to be male, have pre-operative glucose intolerance, or an increased creatinine, body mass index (BMI), pre-operative glucose, operative time, tumour size or specimen length compared with patients without iPRDM (P < 0.05). On multivariate analysis, pre-operative impaired glucose intolerance (P < 0.001), pre-operative glucose ≥ 126 (P < 0.001) and specimen length (P = 0.002) were independent predictors of iPRDM. A predictive model using these three factors demonstrated a c-index of 0.842. Discussion: New-onset, post-resection diabetes occurs in 4% of patients undergoing PD. Factors predictive of iPRDM include pre-operative glucose intolerance, elevated pre-operative glucose and increased specimen length. These data are important for patient education and predicting outcomes after PD.
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