Liver-kidney transplantation (LKT) should be reserved for those recipients with primary disease affecting both organs. However, increasing transplant list waiting times have increased the development and duration of acute renal failure before liver transplantation. Furthermore, the need for posttransplant calcineurin inhibitors can render healing from acute renal failure difficult. Because of the increasing requests for and controversy over the topic of a kidney with a liver transplant (OLT) when complete failure of the kidney is not known, the following article will review the impact of renal failure on liver transplant outcome, treatment of peri-OLT renal failure, rejection rates after LKT, survival after LKT, and information on renal histology and progression of disease into the beginnings of an algorithm for making a decision about combined LKT.
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