Ten kindreds (95 individuals) with multiple endocrine neoplasia, type 2 (MEN 2) were analyzed by linkage analysis using four highly polymorphic (CA)n-repeat markers (sTCL-1, D10S141, ZNF22, and sJRH-1). Additionally, we examined the RET proto-oncogene for specific mutations by DNA sequence analyses in these 10 plus 14 members of 3 additional kindred. Nine families had MEN 2A, two had MEN 2B, and two had medullary thyroid cancer alone (FMTC). Using these four markers, all 10 kindreds were informative, with 10 individuals predicted to be presymptomatic MEN 2 gene carriers and 23 individuals predicted not to be carriers. DNA sequence analysis of exons 10 and 11 of the RET proto-oncogene revealed a mutation in all nine MEN 2A kindreds. A missense mutation was found in each case, leading to a loss of a cysteine residue (codon 618 of exon 10 or codon 634 of exon 11). In the MEN 2A families, the linkage analysis and RET mutation analysis gave concordant results for prediction of gene carriers in 100% of the individuals tested. No mutations were found in the two kindreds with FMTC or the two MEN 2B kindreds. Two individuals from two different MEN 2A kindreds were identified who had abnormal calcitonin stimulation tests but were not MEN 2A gene carriers by both linkage analysis and RET mutation analysis. These individuals presumably represented the sporadic occurrence of abnormal calcitonin stimulation tests in the general population. These studies provide further support for a role of the RET proto-oncogene in the pathogenesis of MEN 2A. Additionally, in the absence of identifiable RET proto-oncogene mutations, linkage analysis using (CA)n-repeat markers is a highly accurate alternative for the identification of MEN 2 or FMTC gene carriers.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
- Clinical Biochemistry
- Biochemistry, medical