The HIV-1 Vpu protein is required for efficient viral release from human cells. For HIV-2, the envelope (Env) protein replaces the role of Vpu. Both Vpu and HIV-2 Env enhance virus release by counteracting an innate host-cell block within human cells that is absent in African green monkey (AGM) cells. Here we identify calcium-modulating cyclophilin ligand (CAML) as a Vpu-interacting host factor that restricts HIV-1 release. Expression of human CAML (encoded by CAMLG) in AGM cells conferred a strong restriction of virus release that was reversed by Vpu and HIV-2 Env, suggesting that CAML is the mechanistic link between these two viral regulators. Depletion of CAML in human cells eliminated the need for Vpu in enhancing HIV-1 and murine leukemia virus release. These results point to CAML as a Vpu-sensitive host restriction factor that inhibits HIV release from human cells. The ability of CAML to inhibit virus release should illuminate new therapeutic strategies against HIV.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)