Identification of a possible pathogenic link between congenital long QT syndrome and epilepsy

J. N. Johnson, N. Hofman, C. M. Haglund, G. D. Cascino, A. A.M. Wilde, M. J. Ackerman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

168 Scopus citations

Abstract

BACKGROUND:: Long QT syndrome (LQTS) typically presents with syncope, seizures, or sudden death. Patients with LQTS have been misdiagnosed with a seizure disorder or epilepsy and treated with antiepileptic drug (AED) medication. The gene, KCNH2, responsible for type 2 LQTS (LQT2), was cloned originally from the hippocampus and encodes a potassium channel active in hippocampal astrocytes. We sought to test the hypothesis that a "seizure phenotype" was ascribed more commonly to patients with LQT2. METHODS:: Charts were reviewed for 343 consecutive, unrelated patients (232 females, average age at diagnosis 27 ± 18 years, QTc 471 ± 57 msec) clinically evaluated and genetically tested for LQTS from 1998 to 2006 at two large LQTS referral centers. A positive seizure phenotype was defined as the presence of either a personal or family history of seizures or history of AED therapy. RESULTS:: A seizure phenotype was recorded in 98/343 (29%) probands. A seizure phenotype was more common in LQT2 (36/77, 47%) than LQT1 (16/72, 22%, p < 0.002) and LQT3 (7/28, 25%, p < 0.05, NS). LQT1 and LQT3 combined cohorts did not differ significantly from expected, background rates of a seizure phenotype. A personal history of seizures was more common in LQT2 (30/77, 39%) than all other subtypes of LQTS (11/106, 10%, p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS:: A diagnostic consideration of epilepsy and treatment with antiepileptic drug medications was more common in patients with LQT2. Like noncardiac organ phenotypes observed in other LQTS-susceptibility genes such as KCNQ1/deafness and SCN5A/gastrointestinal symptoms, this novel LQT2-epilepsy association raises the possibility that LQT2-causing perturbations in the KCNH2-encoded potassium channel may confer susceptibility for recurrent seizure activity.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)224-231
Number of pages8
JournalNeurology
Volume72
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 20 2009

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Clinical Neurology

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