Objective: Adult-onset leukoencephalopathy with axonal spheroids and pigmented glia (ALSP) is caused by mutations in CSF1R. Pathogenic mutations in exons 12–22 including coding sequence of the tyrosine kinase domain (TKD) of CSF1R were previously identified. We aimed to identify CSF1R mutations in patients who were clinically suspected of having ALSP and to determine the pathogenicity of novel CSF1R variants. Methods: Sixty-one patients who fulfilled the diagnostic criteria of ALSP were included in this study. Genetic analysis of CSF1R was performed for all the coding exons. The haploinsufficiency of CSF1R was examined for frameshift mutations by RT-PCR. Ligand-dependent autophosphorylation of CSF1R was examined in cells expressing CSF1R mutants. Results: We identified ten variants in CSF1R including two novel frameshift, five novel missense, and two known missense mutations as well as one known missense variant. Eight mutations were located in TKD. One frameshift mutation (p.Pro104LeufsTer8) and one missense variant (p.His362Arg) were located in the extracellular domain. RT-PCR analysis revealed that the frameshift mutation of p.Pro104LeufsTer8 caused nonsense-mediated mRNA decay. Functional assay revealed that none of the mutations within TKD showed autophosphorylation of CSF1R. The p.His362Arg variant located in the extracellular domain showed comparable autophosphorylation of CSF1R to the wild type, suggesting that this variant is not likely pathogenic. Conclusions: The detection of the CSF1R mutation outside of the region-encoding TKD may extend the genetic spectrum of ALSP with CSF1R mutations. Mutational analysis of all the coding exons of CSF1R should be considered for patients clinically suspected of having ALSP.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Clinical Neurology