Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome (HLHS) is a complex Congenital Heart Disease (CHD) that was almost universally fatal until the advent of the Norwood operation in 1981. Children with HLHS who largely succumbed to the disease within the first year of life, are now surviving to adulthood. However, this survival is associated with multiple comorbidities and HLHS infants have a higher mortality rate as compared to other non-HLHS single ventricle patients. In this review we (a) discuss current clinical challenges associated in the care of HLHS patients, (b) explore the use of systems biology in understanding the molecular framework of this disease, (c) evaluate induced pluripotent stem cells as a translational model to understand molecular mechanisms and manipulate them to improve outcomes, and (d) investigate cell therapy, gene therapy, and tissue engineering as a potential tool to regenerate hypoplastic cardiac structures and improve outcomes.
- Congenital heart disease
- Hypoplastic left heart syndrome
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Molecular Biology
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine