Background: Phosphomannomutase 2 deficiency (PMM2-CDG) is the most common congenital disorder of glycosylation (CDG). Hypoglycemia has been reported in various CDG including PMM2-CDG. The frequency and etiology of hypoglycemia in PMM2-CDG are not well studied. Methods: We conducted a systematic review of the literature on genetically and/or biochemically confirmed PMM2-CDG patients who developed hypoglycemia. Prospective follow-up information on the patients who received diazoxide therapy was collected and evaluated. Results: A total of 165 peer-reviewed articles reporting on 933 PMM2-CDG patients were assessed. Hypoglycemia was specifically mentioned only in 23 of these patients (2.5%). Hyperinsulinism was identified in 10 patients (43% of all hypoglycemic patients). Among these 10 patients, seven were successfully treated with diazoxide. However, most patients remained on therapy longer than a year to stay free of hypoglycemia. Conclusion: Hypoglycemia is a rarely reported finding in patients with PMM2-CDG. Diazoxide-responsive hyperinsulinism was found to have a good prognosis on medication in our PMM2-CDG patients with hypoglycemia. No genotype-phenotype correlation was observed with respect to hyperinsulinism. A prospective study should be undertaken to explore the hypothesis that hypoglycemia is underdiagnosed in PMM2-CDG and to evaluate whether hyperinsulinism is always associated with hypoglycemia.
- congenital disorder(s) of glycosylation
- phosphomannomutase 2
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Internal Medicine
- Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
- Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology (miscellaneous)