Hypochlorous acid produced at the counter electrode inhibits catalase and increases bactericidal activity of a hydrogen peroxide generating electrochemical bandage

Md Monzurul Islam Anoy, Suzanne Gelston, Abdelrhman Mohamed, Laure Flurin, Yash S. Raval, Kerryl Greenwood-Quaintance, Robin Patel, Zbigniew Lewandowski, Haluk Beyenal

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Previously, an electrochemical bandage (e-bandage) that uses a three-electrode system to produce hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) electrochemically on its working electrode was developed as a potential strategy for treating biofilms; it showed activity in reducing biofilms in an agar biofilm model. Xanthan gum-based hydrogel, including NaCl, was used as the electrolyte. While H2O2 generated at the working electrode in the vicinity of a biofilm is a main mechanism of activity, the role of the counter electrode was not explored. The goal of this research was to characterize electrochemical reactions occurring on the counter electrode of the e–bandage. Counter electrode potential varied between 1.2 and 1.5 VAg/AgCl; ∼125 µM hypochlorous acid (HOCl) was generated within 24 h in the e-bandage system. When HOCl was not produced on the counter electrode (achieved by removing NaCl from the hydrogel), reduction of Acinetobacter baumannii BAA-1605 biofilm was 1.08 ± 0.38 log10 CFU/cm2 after 24 h treatment, whereas when HOCl was produced, reduction was 3.87 ± 1.44 log10 CFU/cm2. HOCl inhibited catalase activity, abrogating H2O2 decomposition. In addition to H2O2 generation, the previously described H2O2-generating e-bandage generates HOCl on the counter electrode, enhancing its biocidal activity.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number108261
JournalBioelectrochemistry
Volume148
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 2022

Keywords

  • Biofilm
  • Catalase
  • Electrochemical bandage
  • Hydrogen peroxide
  • Hypochlorous acid
  • Wound healing
  • Wound infection

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biophysics
  • Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
  • Electrochemistry

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