Percutaneous branch pulmonary artery (PA) stenting can be challenging, especially in patients with stenosis of the right ventricular (RV) outflow tract or tortuous PA branches. In these cases, a hybrid procedure deploying PA stent(s) during cardiac surgery provides an alternative to relieve branch PA stenosis. The Mayo Clinic Congenital Cardiac surgical database was used to identify all patients having hybrid PA stent procedures. Retrospective analysis of clinical data, procedural details, and outcomes was performed. Between January 1997 and November 2006, 24 patients (15 females), median age 15 years (range 3 to 67 years), had hybrid PA stent procedures. A total of 27 stents were deployed. A left PA stent was placed in 13, right PA stent in 8; 3 patients had bilateral PA stents. Primary cardiac diagnoses were pulmonary atresia (9), tetralogy of Fallot (7), tricuspid atresia (2), and others (6). Maximum balloon diameters ranged from 8 to 16 mm (median = 12 mm). Concomitant surgical procedures performed were RV to PA conduit replacement or RV outflow tract reconstruction (14), pulmonary valve replacement (7), and others (3). Two procedures were performed following complications of percutaneous procedure. There were no deaths or PA damage. There were 2 cases of distal stent migration. Repeat stent dilations within 6 months were performed in 3 patients. In conclusion, hybrid PA stenting can play an important role in the management of congenital heart disease with complex branch PA anatomy. It also can be used as an emergency rescue procedure following complications of percutaneous transcatheter procedures, such as stent embolization. Hybrid procedures were safe and effective in most patients, although stent positioning remains critical. Intraoperative fluoroscopy and active suture fixation of the proximal stent may reduce the need for late reintervention.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine