Periprosthetic joint infection (PJI), a devastating complication of total joint replacement, is of incompletely understood pathogenesis and may sometimes be challenging to clinically distinguish from other causes of arthroplasty failure. We characterized human gene expression in 93 specimens derived from surfaces of resected arthroplasties, comparing transcriptomes of subjects with infection- versus non-infection-associated arthroplasty failure. Differential gene expression analysis confirmed 28 previously reported potential biomarkers of PJI, including bactericidal/permeability increasing protein (BPI), cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide (CAMP), C-C-motif chemokine ligand 3 (CCL3), 4(CCL4) and C-X-C-motif chemokine ligand 2 (CXCL2), colony stimulating factor 2 receptor beta (CSF2RB), colony stimulating factor 3 (CSF3), alpha-defensin (DEFA4), Fc fragment of IgG receptor 1B (CD64B), intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM1), interferon gamma (IFNG), interleukin 13 receptor subunit alpha 2 (IL13RA2), interleukin 17D (IL17D), interleukin 1 (IL1A, IL1B, IL1RN), interleukin 2 receptors (IL2RA, IL2RG), interleukin 5 receptor (IL5RA), interleukin 6 (IL6), interleukin 8 (IL8), lipopolysaccharide binding protein (LBP), lipocalin (LCN2), lactate dehydrogenase C (LDHC), lactotransferrin (LTF), matrix metallopeptidase 3 (MMP3), peptidase inhibitor 3 (PI3), and vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA), and identified three novel molecules of potential diagnostic use for detection of PJI, namely C-C-motif chemokine ligand CCL20, coagulation factor VII (F7), and B cell receptor FCRL4. Comparative analysis of infections caused by staphylococci versus bacteria other than staphylococci and Staphylococcus aureus versus Staphylococcus epidermidis showed elevated expression of interleukin 13 (IL13), IL17D, and MMP3 in staphylococcal infections, and of IL1B, IL8, and platelet factor PF4V1 in S. aureus compared to S. epidermidis infections. Pathway analysis of over-represented genes suggested activation of host immune response and cellular maintenance and repair functions in response to invasion of infectious agents. The data presented provides new potential targets for diagnosis of PJI and for differentiation of PJI caused by different infectious agents.
- Host response
- Periprosthetic joint infection
- Sonicate fluid
ASJC Scopus subject areas