In neurodegenerative diseases, extracellular vesicles (EVs) transfer pathogenic molecules and are consequently involved in disease progression. We have investigated the proteomic profiles of EVs that were isolated from four different human-induced pluripotent stem cell-derived neural cell types (excitatory neurons, astrocytes, microglia-like cells, and oligodendrocyte-like cells). Novel cell type-specific EV protein markers were then identified for the excitatory neurons (ATP1A3, NCAM1), astrocytes (LRP1, ITGA6), microglia-like cells (ITGAM, LCP1), and oligodendrocyte-like cells (LAMP2, FTH1), as well as 16 pan-EV marker candidates, including integrins and annexins. To further demonstrate how cell-type-specific EVs may be involved in Alzheimer's disease (AD), we performed protein co-expression network analysis and conducted cell type assessments for the proteomes of brain-derived EVs from the control, mild cognitive impairment, and AD cases. A protein module enriched in astrocyte-specific EV markers was most significantly associated with the AD pathology and cognitive impairment, suggesting an important role in AD progression. The hub protein from this module, integrin-β1 (ITGB1), was found to be significantly elevated in astrocyte-specific EVs enriched from the total brain-derived AD EVs and associated with the brain β-amyloid and tau load in independent cohorts. Thus, our study provides a featured framework and rich resource for the future analyses of EV functions in neurodegenerative diseases in a cell type-specific manner.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cell Biology