Objective: To assess whether the beneficial perioperative effects of alvimopan differ with surgical approach for patients who undergo open radical cystectomy (ORC) vs robot-assisted radical cystectomy (RARC). Methods: This retrospective study reviewed all patients who underwent cystectomy with urinary diversion at our institution between January 1, 2007, and January 1, 2018. Data were collected on demographic characteristics, comorbidities, surgical approach, alvimopan therapy, hospital length of stay (LOS), days until return of bowel function (ROBF), and complications. Outcomes and interactions were evaluated through regression analysis. Results: Among 573 patients, 236 (41.2%) underwent RARC, 337 (58.8%) underwent ORC, and 205 (35.8%) received alvimopan. Comparison of 4 cohorts (ORC with alvimopan, ORC without alvimopan, RARC with alvimopan, and RARC without alvimopan) showed that patients who underwent ORC without alvimopan had the highest rate of postoperative ileus (25.6%, P = .02), longest median hospital LOS (7 days, P < .001), and longest time until ROBF (4 days, P < .001). On multivariable analysis, the interaction between surgical approach and alvimopan use was significant for the outcome of ROBF (estimate, 1.109; 95% confidence interval, 0.418-1.800; P = .002). In the RARC cohort, multivariable analysis showed no benefit of alvimopan with respect to ileus (P = .27), LOS (P = .09), or ROBF (P = .36). Regarding joint effects of robotic approach and alvimopan, RARC had no effect on gastrointestinal tract outcomes. Conclusion: We observed a diminished beneficial effect of alvimopan among patients undergoing RARC and a statistically significant benefit of alvimopan among patients undergoing ORC. The implications of these findings may permit more selective medication use for patients who would benefit the most from this drug.
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