HIV-1 subtype diversity among clinical specimens submitted for routine antiviral drug resistance testing in the United States

Jeffrey J. Germer, Puqiang Wu, Jason D. Soderberg, Jayawant Mandrekar, Joseph D. Yao

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

3 Scopus citations


Diversity of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) has important implications for the diagnosis, treatment, and management of HIV-1-infected individuals. HIV-1 pol sequences from 3895 clinical plasma specimens collected in the United States over a 1-year period and submitted for routine HIV-1 genotypic drug resistance testing were retrospectively analyzed for HIV-1 subtype. Of these 3895 HIV-1 sequences, 207 (5.31%) were determined to be non-B subtypes (including recombinant forms). Among individual states, the percentage of non-B subtypes ranged from 0% (12 states) to 28.57% in South Dakota, with 7 states having percentages of >10%. All 4 states with the highest percentages of non-B subtypes were located within the US West North Central region: Minnesota, 11.82%; Iowa, 15.38%; North Dakota, 25.00%; and South Dakota, 28.57%. Reasons for the unexpectedly wide diversity of HIV-1 subtypes present in multiple states located in the West North Central region of the United States remain to be determined.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)257-260
Number of pages4
JournalDiagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
Issue number3
StatePublished - Nov 1 2015



  • HIV-1 strain diversity
  • HIV-1 subtypes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Microbiology (medical)
  • Infectious Diseases

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