High-speed rotational atherectomy (RA) is a new percutaneous procedure for treatment of coronary stenoses that operates by the unique mechanism of plaque abrasion. This article reports acute (in-hospital) outcomes and 1- year follow-up in a large cohort of patients treated with this device by NACI investigators. A total of 525 patients with 670 lesions treated with RA form the substrate of this report. Patients tended to be older (mean age 64.8 years) than those in previously reported series of percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA), with more extensive disease and more complex lesions. Calcification was present in 54% of lesions, and eccentricity in 41%. Balloon angioplasty postdilation was performed after RA in 88% of cases. Angiographic and procedural success (angiographic success without death, Q- wave myocardial infarction [MI] or emergency coronary artery bypass graft [CABG] surgery) rates were 89% and 88%, respectively. Acute in-hospital events included 4 deaths (1%) and 1 emergency CABG surgery (0.4%). MI occurred in 6% of patients, consisting predominantly of non-Q-wave MI (5%). After RA, angiographic complications included coronary dissection (12%), abrupt closure (5%), side branch occlusion (3%), and distal embolization (3%). Most of these were resolved after postdilation except for coronary dissection, which was present in 15% of lesions treated. Mean length of stay was 3 days. At 1-year follow-up, 27% of patients required target lesion revascularization and 30% had experienced death, Q-wave MI, or target lesion revascularization. Preprocedural characteristics that independently predicted 1-year death, Q-wave MI, or target lesion revascularization were male gender, high risk for surgery, target lesions that were proximal to or in bifurcations, eccentric, long, or highly stenosed. RA, even when applied to lesions of traditionally unfavorable morphology, appears to provide reasonable procedural and angiographic success rates. Restenosis and progression of disease contribute to subsequent clinical and procedural events.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine