High-fructose feeding elicits insulin resistance, hyperinsulinism, and hypertension in normal mongrel dogs

F. Javier Martinez, Robert A. Rizza, J. Carlos Romero

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

106 Scopus citations

Abstract

To determine whether chronic high-fructose feeding causes insulin resistance and hypertension in normal dogs, we fed 10 male dogs a normosodic diet containing 60% of the calories as fructose for 20 to 28 days; a control group of 8 dogs was fed a similar diet containing dextrose instead of fructose. In the fructose-fed group, (1) fasting triglyceridemia increased from 35.3±0.63 to 91.9±11.55 mg/dL after 25 days (P<.001); (2) fasting insulinemia increased from 19.0±1.9 to 58.9±7.22 μU/mL after 25 days (P<.001); (3) insulin resistance, which was estimated by steady-state glycemia during an insulin suppression test, increased from 105.8±21.5 to 187.8±32.6 mg/dL after 15 days (P<.001), whereas steady-state insulinemia did not change; (4) mean arterial pressure increased from 100.4±1.6 to 122.6±2.3 mm Hg after 28 days (P<.01); and (5) cumulative sodium balance was increased on days 7 through 11 (111.60±4.44 mEq on day 8, P<.01), returning to normal for the rest of the experiment. All these parameters were similar between the fructose-fed and dextrose-fed groups before the diets were started and remained constant in the dextrose-fed group. Neither group showed any change in body weight, fasting plasma glucose, atrial natriuretic factor, or endothelin-1 levels. We conclude that chronic high-fructose feeding elicits hypertriglyceridemia, insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia, hypertension, and a transient sodium retention in dogs without fostering fasting hyperglycemia or weight gain. Endothelin and atrial natriuretic factor do not appear to play a role in the development of hypertension in this model.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)456-463
Number of pages8
JournalHypertension
Volume23
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - Apr 1994

Keywords

  • atrial natriuretic factor
  • dogs
  • endothelins
  • fructose
  • hypertension, experimental
  • insulin
  • triglycerides

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Internal Medicine

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