Background: Primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) is a rare type of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. The limited disease-free survival after chemotherapy has resulted in a poor prognosis. The outcomes data for high-dose therapy followed by autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation (auto-HCT) for PEL are limited owing to the rarity of the disease. Patients and Methods: The present study included 9 patients with PEL from 2 major academic centers. Of these patients, 4 had received auto-HCT after high-dose therapy. Of the 9 patients, 8 (89%) had immunodeficiency (7 with human immunodeficiency virus seropositivity; 1, a solid organ transplant recipient) at the diagnosis. Human herpesvirus-8 by immunohistochemistry was positive in 8 patients. Anthracycline-based combination chemotherapy was used as first-line treatment in 7 patients; 4 underwent auto-HCT after attaining first complete remission. Results: The median follow-up of the surviving patients was 25 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 8%-29%). The 2-year progression-free and overall survival for the 8 patients who had received treatment was 58% (95% CI, 22%-95%) and 73% (95% CI, 41%-100%), respectively. The 2-year progression-free and overall survival for the patients who had received auto-HCT was 50% (95% CI, 1%-99%) and 75% (95% CI, 33%-100%), respectively. Of the 4 auto-HCT recipients, all had been in first complete remission at the time of autografting. The cumulative incidence of relapse was 50% (95% CI, 19%-100%). No deaths were attributable to auto-HCT at 2 years after autografting. Conclusion: Despite the small sample size, our data have shown that consolidative auto-HCT is safe and effective and should be considered for eligible patients with PEL after demonstration of an objective response to induction chemotherapy. However, the high relapse rate remains a concern and warrants the development of new strategies to mitigate post-transplantation relapse.
- Autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation
- Primary effusion lymphoma
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cancer Research