Heterotopic ossification of tendon and ligament

Qiang Zhang, Dong Zhou, Haitao Wang, Jun Tan

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

1 Scopus citations


Much of the similarities of the tissue characteristics, pathologies and mechanisms of heterotopic ossification (HO) formation are shared between HO of tendon and ligament (HOTL). Unmet need and no effective treatment has been developed for HOTL, primarily attributable to poor understanding of cellular and molecular mechanisms. HOTL forms via endochondral ossification, a common process of most kinds of HO. HOTL is a dynamic pathologic process that includes trauma/injury, inflammation, mesenchymal stromal cell (MSC) recruitment, chondrogenic differentiation and, finally, ossification. A variety of signal pathways involve HOTL with multiple roles in different stages of HO formation, and here in this review, we summarize the progress and provide an up-to-date understanding of HOTL.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)5428-5437
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
Issue number10
StatePublished - May 1 2020


  • HOTL
  • heterotopic ossification
  • ligament
  • review
  • tendon

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Molecular Medicine
  • Cell Biology

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