Urinary stones tend to cluster in families. Of the known risk factors, evidence is strongest for heritability of urinary calcium excretion. Recent studies suggest that other stone risk factors may have heritable components including urinary pH, citrate and magnesium excretion, and circulating vitamin D concentration. Several risk factors assumed purely environmental may also have heritable components, including dietary intake and thirst. Thus, future studies may reveal that genetics plays an even stronger role in urinary stone pathogenesis than previously known.
- Urinary stone disease
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