The metastatic process requires changes in tumor cell adhesion properties, cell motility and remodeling of the extracellular matrix. The erbB2 proto-oncogene is overexpressed in approximately 30% of breast cancers and is a major prognostic parameter when present in invasive disease. A ligand for the erbB2 receptor has not yet been identified but it can be activated by heterodimerization with heregulin (HRG)-stimulated erbB3 and erbB4 receptors. The HRGs are a family of polypeptide growth factors that have been shown to play a role in embryogenesis, tumor formation, growth and differentiation of breast cancer cells. The erbB3 and erbB4 receptors are involved in transregulation of erbB2 signaling. The work presented here suggests biological roles for HRG including regulation of the actin cytoskeleton and induction of motility and invasion in breast cancer cells. HRG-expressing breast cancer cell lines are characterized by low erbB receptor levels and a high invasive and metastatic index, while those which overexpress erbB2 demonstrate minimal invasive potential in vitro and are non-tumorigenic in vivo. Treatment of the highly tumorigenic and metastatic HRG-expressing breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231 with an HRG-neutralizing antibody significantly inhibited proliferation in culture and motility in the Boyden chamber assay. Addition of exogenous HRG to non-invasive erbB2 overexpressing cells (SKBr-3) at low concentrations induced formation of pseudopodia, enhanced phagocytic activity and increased chemomigration and invasion in the Boyden chamber assay. The specificity of the chemomigration response to HRG is demonstrated by inhibition with the anti-HRG neutralizing antibody. These results suggest that either HRG can act as an autocrine or paracrine ligand to promote the invasive behavior of breast cancer cells in vitro or thus may enhance the metastatic process in vivo.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cancer Research