Lysozyme amyloidosis (ALys) is a rare form of hereditary amyloidosis that typically manifests with renal impairment, gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms, and sicca syndrome, whereas cardiac involvement is exceedingly rare and neuropathy has not been reported. Here, we describe a 40-year-old man with renal impairment, cardiac and GI symptoms, and peripheral neuropathy. Renal biopsy specimen analysis revealedamyloidosis with extensive involvement of glomeruli, vessels, and medulla. Amyloid was also detected in the GI tract. Echocardiographic and electrocardiographic findings were consistent with cardiac involvement. Proteomic analysis of Congo red-positive renal and GI amyloid deposits detected abundant lysozyme C protein. DNA sequencing of the lysozyme gene in the patient and his mother detected a heterozygous c.305T.>C alteration in exon 3, which causes a leucine to serine substitution at codon 102 (Human Genome Variation Society nomenclature: P.Leu102Ser; legacy designation: L84S).We also detected the mutant peptide in the proband's renal and GI amyloid deposits. PolyPhen analysis predicted that the mutation damages the encoded protein. Molecular dynamics simulations suggested that the pathogenesis of ALys p.Leu102Ser is mediated by shifting the position of the central b-hairpin coordinated with an antiparallel motion of the C-terminal helix, which may alter the native-state structural ensemble of the molecule, leading to aggregation-prone intermediates.
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