Hepatocellular carcinoma

Josep M. Llovet, Jessica Zucman-Rossi, Eli Pikarsky, Bruno Sangro, Myron Schwartz, Morris Sherman, Gregory James Gores

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

526 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Liver cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths globally and has an incidence of approximately 850,000 new cases per year. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) represents approximately 90% of all cases of primary liver cancer. The main risk factors for developing HCC are well known and include hepatitis B and C virus infection, alcohol intake and ingestion of the fungal metabolite aflatoxin B1. Additional risk factors such as non-alcoholic steatohepatitis are also emerging. Advances in the understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of HCC have led to identification of critical driver mutations; however, the most prevalent of these are not yet druggable targets. The molecular classification of HCC is not established, and the Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer staging classification is the main clinical algorithm for the stratification of patients according to prognosis and treatment allocation. Surveillance programmes enable the detection of early-stage tumours that are amenable to curative therapies-resection, liver transplantation or local ablation. At more developed stages, only chemoembolization (for intermediate HCC) and sorafenib (for advanced HCC) have shown survival benefits. There are major unmet needs in HCC management that might be addressed through the discovery of new therapies and their combinations for use in the adjuvant setting and for intermediate- and advanced-stage disease. Moreover, biomarkers for therapy stratification, patient-tailored strategies targeting driver mutations and/or activating signalling cascades, and validated measurements of quality of life are needed. Recent failures in the testing of systemic drugs for intermediate and advanced stages have indicated a need to refine trial designs and to define novel approaches.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number16018
JournalNature Reviews Disease Primers
Volume2
DOIs
StatePublished - Apr 14 2016

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Hepatocellular Carcinoma
Liver Neoplasms
Mutation
Aflatoxin B1
Neoplasm Staging
Virus Diseases
Fatty Liver
Therapeutics
Hepatitis B virus
Hepacivirus
Liver Transplantation
Neoplasms
Eating
Biomarkers
Alcohols
Quality of Life
Survival
Incidence
Pharmaceutical Preparations

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)

Cite this

Llovet, J. M., Zucman-Rossi, J., Pikarsky, E., Sangro, B., Schwartz, M., Sherman, M., & Gores, G. J. (2016). Hepatocellular carcinoma. Nature Reviews Disease Primers, 2, [16018]. https://doi.org/10.1038/nrdp.2016.18

Hepatocellular carcinoma. / Llovet, Josep M.; Zucman-Rossi, Jessica; Pikarsky, Eli; Sangro, Bruno; Schwartz, Myron; Sherman, Morris; Gores, Gregory James.

In: Nature Reviews Disease Primers, Vol. 2, 16018, 14.04.2016.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Llovet, JM, Zucman-Rossi, J, Pikarsky, E, Sangro, B, Schwartz, M, Sherman, M & Gores, GJ 2016, 'Hepatocellular carcinoma', Nature Reviews Disease Primers, vol. 2, 16018. https://doi.org/10.1038/nrdp.2016.18
Llovet JM, Zucman-Rossi J, Pikarsky E, Sangro B, Schwartz M, Sherman M et al. Hepatocellular carcinoma. Nature Reviews Disease Primers. 2016 Apr 14;2. 16018. https://doi.org/10.1038/nrdp.2016.18
Llovet, Josep M. ; Zucman-Rossi, Jessica ; Pikarsky, Eli ; Sangro, Bruno ; Schwartz, Myron ; Sherman, Morris ; Gores, Gregory James. / Hepatocellular carcinoma. In: Nature Reviews Disease Primers. 2016 ; Vol. 2.
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